Common Arrangement of Work Sections Level Headings

A Preliminaries and General Conditions E In-situ Concrete Large Precast Concrete G Structural Carcassing Metal Timber K Linings Sheathing Dry Partitioning Q Paving Planting Fencing Site Furniture T Mechanical Heating Cooling Refrigeration Systems U Ventilation Air Conditioning Systems V Electrical Supply Power Lighting Systems w Communications Security Control Systems X Transport Systems Y Services Reference Specification Z Building Fabric Reference Specification

Conclusions

It is possible to audit visually and to quantify waste produced during normal construction work 2. From the sample studied it seems that housing work generates waste at twice the rate per 1.00 spent when compared with all projects, and three times the rate when compared with the non-housing work observed. However, for the reasons stated earlier, the figures for housing alone are probably more reliable in their own right than those for non-housing. 3. There is currently little incentive for the...

Confidence

Auditors were asked to attribute a confidence level to their observations direct observation measurement possible direct observation measurement difficult but quite sure of actual content direct observation measurement difficult but content noted seems likely The majority of observations, ie those that fell into the 'Positive' and 'Probable' categories, have been treated in the same way and contribute to the overall figures. Those few that fell within the 'Possible' category were reanalysed...

Construction phase

Here, the individual materials identified are incorporated into the works. The conversion process complicates the tracking of individual materials through to waste output and some knowledge of the process is required to obtain a sensible figure. Complications are also introduced as a result of physical changes in materials, eg aggregates + cement + water concrete. If the same level of information available for the original materials is to be preserved through to their arrival as waste, a...

Construction summary

Production quantities in each time period from method statement work plans Programme activity (length 3 time periods) Production quantities in each time period from method statement work plans Production Quantities x waste allowance expected waste output. Display graphically for each material type -expected quantities in each time period. Note certain associated materials may be shown on the same graph e.g. bricks and mortar Production Quantities x waste allowance expected waste output....

Info

Construction companies should therefore include the provision of a waste prediction model within their bidding strategy. Common availability of this information will allow for competitive pricing by waste management companies for waste removal and detailed design of the system required to do so. This will require all recyclable materials to be segregated and placed in bins, containers or other receptacles including bags so that individual collections of uncontaminated materials can be made with...

Information collection

Whilst the model is based on contract documentation to ensure simplicity, commercial sensitivity may lead contractors to refuse to reveal information used in compiling a tender, This problem is compounded by the large number of specialist sub-contractors used on the typical building or other construction protect. Communication problems may well preclude complete coverage of information. Accuracy of supplied data must also be considered in particular waste allowances are known to have wide...

Information resources

The contract programme identifies production activities and their associated time scale. Areas of parallel working are also identified which may be used when assessing a waste format. Method statements and work-plans identify production process, production rates and activities. They assist in identifying materials used and, therefore, waste products produced when used to interpret processes with reference to bills of quantities and Bills of quantities and specifications identify material types...

Introduction

The study, although self-contained, is intended to make a contribution to a broader based study being undertaken by CIRIA (3). The method of data collection took the form of waste audits performed mainly by volunteer Institute The study sites included representatives from several regions of the UK (Fig 1.1). Although not preplanned the sample was biased towards housing, since house building was the most active sector at the time. Also the majority of those volunteer observers unable to complete...

Potential areas of application

It is Intended that the model should act as a communication tool between the waste producers and waste processors. The ability to predict accurately quantities and types of waste, coupled with information on when they will occur, allows negotiations to take place with regard to appropriate and economical waste handling and reprocessing. The use of standard contract documentation is intended to ensure a minimum additional workload, above normal tender preparation work, to repair the model. As...

Recommendations

Further studies using the auditing technique should be carried out on a range of one-off building and construction types. 2. The data obtained for housing should be used to test the model discussed in Part III of this report. 3. The audit technique should be developed on the basis of its inherent value. More difficult to assess the contents Of this skip. More difficult to assess the contents Of this skip.

Sequence of Construction

Using the contract programme, establish which activities occur within each time period (normally one week). Using BOQ specifications, identify the material types in each activity. (Note Quantities here are absolute and not necessarily related to production quantities and any given time period.) Using method statement work-plans, establish the production rates for each activity and thereby the consumption for each Taking the waste allowances used in the estimating process, multiply the factor...

Results Of Postal Survey Of Materials Suppliers

Fibre cement sheets roof 'slates' fire protection Re-use not recyclable. Manf. waste no comment. Site waste no comment. Re-use damaged sheets cut down. Manf. waste reconstitute Site waste no comment. Concrete bricks, blocks and other components Manf. 1 Re-use not Reuse Manf. waste no comment. Site waste no comment. Concrete bricks, blocks and other components Manf. 2 Re-use sorted, reclassification and repackaged. Manf. waste sold as clean hardcore. Site waste no comment. Concrete bricks,...

Quantifying waste

There was no access to a simple device, such as a weigh-bridge, for the basic measurement of the quantity of waste produced on site and subsequently carried away in any case this would not have aided analysis of the content. Fortunately, the almost universal method of off site disposal employed refuse skips of standard dimensions. Removal of excavated material was the only significant exception to this. Since it was unreasonable to ask volunteers to incur physical contact with the waste and...

Classification Of Waste Materials

Eg. suitable (possibly with further crushing) as hardcore fill to PSA specification Hard stone Concrete Coarse gravel Hard broken brick Hard broken block as above but also containing or consisting of significant amounts of mortar render Soft broken brick Soft broken block Soft rock (eg soft chalk) H3 - Hard material, Type 3, contaminated Type 1 or 2 (State contaminants eg Gypsum (or other) plaster Plasterboard Timber etc). M1 - Non ferrous metals, eg copper M3 - Other coated contaminated...

Density estimates

During the observations, information was collected on the density of the material observed in the refuse skips. There is, however, considerable doubt concerning the validity of the results. The 'rule of thumb' instruction given to the observers was to classify as follows Dense -could not easily be further compacted, eg for hardcore, equates with unit measure for supply Loose -'bulked' by around 50 or more of unit supply measure. Table 1.1 shows suggested factors to be used for the analysis....

Observation method

Illustrations of common skip shapes and sizes were provided so that, by eye (or by measurement and chalk marking if the observers felt unsure), skips could be divided into a 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m three dimensional cube grid ( 0.125m or 125 litres for each cube). Incomplete cubes were identified with their volume given in a 'ready reckoner' for the individual skip shape. Information about the project was collected on a 'cover sheet' for the project, including plots of skip locations and indications...

Preface For Recycling Research Paper

The studies reported in this paper were part-funded by the Department of the Environment within its Collaborative Research Programme and carried out under the direction of the Chartered Institute of Building and the following Steering Group Mr D M Jones Mr A R Schoon Mr A McGowan Mr I G Douglas Mr J Stopper Ms J Atkins Mr N Thornback Ms B Zentner Dr O Jenkins Ms Carol Atkinson Ms Sue Hobbs Mr Ron Ridout Director, Building Division, John Laing Construction Assistant Director, Planning &...

Method

It was anticipated that the representatives of the waste management industry involved in the research would be able to develop the proposition expounded in Part I by using either the suggested indicies, other criteria or 'what if' questions. Unfortunately this did not happen. The proposition was that the cheapness of landfill in the UK militates against the economic implementation of recycling measures and that the situation is already beginning to change through the provisions of the EPA...

Commentary

The most striking characteristic of the analysis represented by the Tables is the similarity of assessment of financial viability for all materials except those that can, in theory, be dealt with as a constructron Industry issue. From the comments of the waste Industry and manufacturers Appendix 2 , if the speculative effects have been reasonably judged, then it seems that neither offering incentives towards recycling nor significant escalation of the cost of disposal will have much effect when...

Objective

It was considered that the techniques and skills required for identifying and predicting waste types and levels already exist in the methods of estimating and the allowances made for waste of materials during that process. Additionally, the site procedures needed to control waste are very similar to those in place for the site storage and distribution of materials to the workface. Appendrx 4 . By reference to the contract programme, the envisaged rates and quantities of specific waste...