Checking your understanding

Pages 1-4 Write answers to these questions. 1 What happens if you put engine oil in water 2 I low many people are there in the world Pages 5-9 How much can you remember Check your answers. 1 What do the Zabbaleen do every day 2 Who throws out more rubbish every week, a family in Mexico or a family in Japan 3 Why do Europe and the USA send a lot of waste to other countries Pages 10-15 Are these sentences true (T) or false (F) 2 In Norway cars arc recycled by bacteria. 3 Glass cannot be melted...

Working with language

1 Use these words to join these eight short sentences together to make four longer ones. 1 The Greens have a small garden. They grow fruit and vegetables. 2 You cannot see or smell radiation. It is very toxic. 3 Recycling plastic is more difficult than reusing it. There are many different kinds of plastic. 4 We pack things in plastic. We throw away the packing materials. 2 Pitt these sentences into the right order. Then check your order on pages 22-23. 1 On many dumps, people and machines...

Dump it or recycle it

Rubbish produced each week Los Angeles 21 kg New York 13 kg London 6 kci I low much rubbish do you throw out every week If you live in Los Angeles, you probably throw away about twenty-one kilograms of rubbish every week. Every man, woman and child in London throws away six kilograms of rubbish every week. The figure for Tokyo is seven kilograms. Mexico City throws away only three kilograms for each person. Imagine the mountains of rubbish in a big city like New York, which throws away 170,000...

Recycling facts

How Many People Conserve Energy

In the East and in South America, many people wear shoes made from old car tyres. In Africa many people collect cow dung and dry it in the sun. The dry dung burns almost as well as Conservation means conserving things - saving them, or using them carefully. When you turn off the light in the daytime, you are conserving energy. When you write notes on the back of an old letter, you arc conserving materials. You are also conserving your money Recycling means conserving materials and energy by...

The Green family

Can vvc save our environment before it s too late Who knows Well, let s do some guessing. We say that a person who cares about the environment is green . Imagine a green family in twenty years time. Gary and Gail Green and their children Gavin and Grace live in an energy-saving house. Most of their house is under the ground. This makes it easy to conserve heat and keep the house warm in winter and cool in summer. Light comes in through the roof, which can open and close like a window. Special...

Recycling at home

Use Waste Material For Shapes

What can you do to recycle materials and conserve energy Well, you can t melt down your old refrigerator or make plastic into sweaters But there are a lot of things you can do. Don t waste food. Don t waste water. Don t waste energy. Don t waste materials. Use everything sensibly and carefully. Write notes on the backs of old letters and Christmas cards. Buy recycled products if you can. Use bottle banks, can banks and fabric banks. Say No to plastic bags in shops. Take your own shopping bag....

Energy from rubbish

Wasted Paper The Dumping Site

After you have reused and recycled your metal, glass, paper, plastics and fabric, there is still a lot of waste to dispose of. Most of it is ordinary household waste. I lousehold waste is usually dumped in landfill sites. These arc places where somebody dug stone or metals out of the ground and left a big hole. You can fill that hole with rubbish. Powerful machines break up the waste to make it smaller. On many dumps, people and machines separate the rubbish for recycling. Dangerous things like...

From rags to riches

Recycling Fabric

Fabric is very easy ro reuse and recycle. Not long ago, rag men went through the streets of every town, buying unwanted clothes and other rags. They separated the different kinds of fabric and sold them to factories for recycling. There arc still plenty of rag men all over the world. They may not go from house to house, but they still buy unwanted fabric and send it to factories for recycling. Rags are an important industry. Some rags are made into new fabrics. Natural fabrics like cotton and...

Recycling plastics problems and possibilities

Dump Clothes

Plastic on a dump Clothes made from Plastic on a dump Clothes made from Most plastics arc made from oil and other natural materials which will not last for ever. At the moment, we use plastic wastcfully because it is cheap to produce. We pack things in it, then we throw away the packing. In Europe and the USA, about seventy per cent of the plastic that an ordinary family throws away in its rubbish comes from packing materials. Plastic is a wonderfully strong, long-lasting material which is very...

Recycling paper and saving trees

The world cuts down more than a million trees every year to make paper and paper products. In the USA, each person uses about 300 kilograms of paper each year. In Europe, the figure is 200 kilograms. In India, each person uses only six kilograms of paper each year. It takes two tonnes of wood and 200,000 litres of water to make a tonne of paper. About thirty per cent of our rubbish is paper and paper products. It is stupid and wasteful to dump them. Paper on rubbish dumps does not do anybody...

From old to new

Trabant Scrap

Flattened cars Bricks of scrap metal the cars arc taken away to the steel factory. There, powerful machines reduce each car into something like a small metal brick. The bricks are melted and made into new steel. This is a very good way to conserve both materials and energy. But some people are too lazy to recycle their old cars. They drive them to a quiet place and dump them there. In Norway there is a Flattened cars Bricks of scrap metal Recycling materials is often very much cheaper than...

Preventing pollution

What Fieldwork Geography

Some companies try hard to reduce waste and prevent pollution. The American company 3M have a plan called 3P-Pollution Prevention Pays . They pay extra money to their workers to encourage them to reduce waste and conserve energy and materials. Since they started 3P, the company has saved almost a billion dollars, and reduced its waste by fifty percent. Some industries have reused and recycled materials for years. In many industries containers are used again and again. Oil drums are a good...

Dumping or disposal

Factory Dumped Water

We often talk about waste disposal, but disposal is really the wrong word, because you cannot really dispose of waste. Suppose that you put your waste on a rubbish dump. You have clumped it, but you have not disposed of it. If you want to do something better than dumping, you can change waste into something different. For example, you can burn it. This will produce heat, which may be useful, but it may also produce poisonous smoke and gases, which are another kind of waste. Better still, you...

Nothing lasts for ever

People Taking Bottles Bottle Bank

Pollution is not the only reason for recycling. It is important to reduce pollution, but there is another reason as well - the conservation of energy, materials and money. Nothing lasts for ever. Almost all our energy comes from materials oil, natural gas, etc. which have been here since the world began. We are using them up very quickly. For example, unless we conserve our oil, it will only last for another twenty years. What will we do then Reusing is the easiest and cheapest kind of...