Make Money in the Recycling Business

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money! Join the many individuals and families who are learning to prosper in the salvage and recycling business starting with little or no cash. You'll learn: How to bootstrap your business without going into debt. How to get your salvage for free or for pennies on the dollar. (In some cases you will be paid to take the material away). How to find the best price in the least amount of time. The tools and equipment you will need many easily fabricated. Information based on my experience in salvage, recycle and reuse in the following areas: Construction and building materials. Deconstruction and recycled lumber. Farm and ranch equipment and supplies. Heavy equipment salvaging for high value parts. Scrap metal ferrous and non-ferrous. Electronic, communication, and computer scrap and recycling. Salvage for alternative energy systems. Antiques and collectibles. Promoting and marketing. Always treating everyone with fairness and respect and not profiting from the misfortune of others ways to create win-win situations for All parties involved. How to deal with scrap and recycling dealers and brokers. Innovative businesses you can start using various salvaged materials. How to arrange transportation, interim storage, cheap yard space without dealing with high cost commercial operators. How to be paid for your work before you ever start. How to get the equipment and tools you need. How to stay solvent and operate on a cash basis. Read more here...

Home Based Recycling Business Overview

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The Benefits of Recycling Are Exaggerated

The European Union has laid down a set of rules that require citizens of the United Kingdom to double their recycling rates by 2008, while many major cities in the United States, such as New York and Seattle, have proposed vast, required, expansions of existing recycling programs. However, all of these rules and regulations are based in pure myth. Recycling is one of the most unimpeachable environmental movements today, but its benefits are greatly exaggerated and its costs often go completely unreported. One of the most pervasive myths about recycling is that America is faced with a rising tide of trash and waste, and soon we will be awash in it, completely buried in our own refuse. According to the Heartland Institute, Lake County, Ohio, had to end its curbside recycling program because it could not afford to continue to subsidize the costs.

Evaluation Of Costs And Benefits For The Achievement Of Reuse And Recycling Targets For The Different Packaging

Gallager (2001), Mixed Signals Market Incentives, Recycling and the Price Spike of 1995, Tufts University, Global Development and Environment Institute, Working Paper 01-02. Apotheker, Steve (1993), It's Black and White, and Recycled all over, Resource Recycling, 12(7). Ardant, Ignace and F. Gaspart (2003), Scrapping the Surface Lemons, Informational Institutionals and Emerging Markets in a Recycling Branch, unpublished mimeo, Laboratoire d' conom trie de l' cole Polytechnique, Paris. Ayres, R.U. (1997), Metals recycling economic and environmental implications, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 21, pp. 145-173. Bardos, R. P. et al. (1991), Market Barriers to Materials Reclamation and Recycling (Stevenage AEA Technology). Beukering, Pieter van (2001), Empirical Evidence on Recycling and Trade of Paper and Lead in Developed and Developing Countries, World Development 29(10), pp. 17171737. Calcott, Paul and Margaret Walls (2000), Policies to Encourage...

Executive Summary Improving Recycling Markets

Technological externalities associated with product design can result in sub-optimal levels of recycling. There is little empirical evidence that the exercise of market power by virgin material producers has suppressed markets for recyclable materials. Moreover, there are also arguments to support the view that market power in virgin material markets may serve to increase the use of recyclable materials. However, it may even be that power within the market for recyclable materials themselves may be reducing recycling rates. In cases where markets are primarily local in nature (i.e. construction and demolition waste), or when there are significant economies of density (i.e. wastepaper collection), there may be issues of market power in the recycling process itself which need to be addressed. Encouraging ever-higher recycling rates in an imperfect market may impose very high social welfare costs. In such cases it may be far less costly to address the imperfection within the market than...

Recycling plastics problems and possibilities

Dump Clothes

Stays the same for hundreds of years. If you throw a plastic bottle in the sea, it will land, undamaged, 011 a beach hundreds of miles away. If you burn plastic on an ordinary fire it produces slimy smoke and poisonous gases. Although some special plastics have been produced which decay, they arc expensive. It is much better to find a way of reusing or recycling plastic. Recycling plastic is more difficult than reusing it, because there arc many different kinds of plastic. Some plastics melt when you heat them. Others do not. You can make these 'unmeltable' plastics into a few products - posts or garden furniture, for example - but these cannot be recycled again. In the USA there is a factory which recycles the plastic containers from 'fast food' like hamburgers and hot drinks. The plastic is washed, then melted. It is made into plant pots and other useful things. At the moment, this kind of recycling is expensive. Some people think it is better to burn the plastic to produce energy....

Basic Concepts on the Recycling of Homogeneous and

Main Problems in Plastics Recycling 64 Recycling 79 Recycling of Post-consumer Plastic Containers for Liquids 93 A New Process for Recycling of Mixed Plastics Waste 117 3.6 Examples of Applications of Grafted Copolymers 146 3.6.1 Particular Case of Plastics Recycling 146 Effect of Contamination on the Recycling of Polymers 167

Removing policy failures which discourage recycling

Another public policy area which directly impacts upon recycling rates concerns the existence of policy failures which affect the degree of substitution between primary and recyclable materials.65 Two areas seem to be particularly important It has often been argued that various types of subsidies for the extraction and processing of primary materials have inhibited the development of markets for some substitute recyclable materials. This can include various forms of direct financial subsidies (support for exploration and development), as well as tax preferences (percentage depreciation allowances) and in-kind public support (road construction in isolated regions), amongst others. Non-internalisation of associated public environmental goods (i.e. forest habitat, natural landscape, etc.) are also significant types of subsidies associated with primary resource exploitation. Such subsidies may result in significant negative environmental impacts generally (see, for example, Porter, 2002...

Recycling measures and waste management in the construction industry

London Docklands Flats For Sale

The EC Directive 751442 and Recommendation 811972 encourages Member States to introduce recycling measures largely in order to conserve the world's diminishing supply of resources. Recycling, however, is not only a matter of resource conservation it is also a question of good waste management which could well save money by allowing a construction company to maximize the hidden potential within waste products. The hidden benefits of recycling may entail aggregate production, the re-extraction of metals, the re-burning of waste for energy (as in cement manufacture), and the rescue of components or products such as panel doors, windows and bricks. Recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles. Warehouse conversion to apartments in London Docklands (Brian Edwards .) Recycling buildings and giving them new uses is as important as recycling bottles. Warehouse conversion to apartments in London Docklands (Brian Edwards .) Measuring environmental impact is...

Recycling Is Not Efficient

However, this is common government logic it is energy saving simply because government does not count the time and energy used by nine million people cleaning and sorting their trash. Government authorities and researchers have reached the conclusion that the cost of (a) the water and electricity used for cleaning household trash, (b) transportation from trash collection centers, and (c) the final recycling process is actually less than would be necessary to produce these materials from scratch. Of course, they don't count the literally millions of times people drive to the recycling centers to empty their trash bins neither do they count, for instance, energy and costs for the extra housing space required for a dozen extra trash bins in every home. Economically, Swedish recycling is a disaster. Imagine a whole population spending time and money cleaning their garbage and

Plutonium Recycling And The Melox Fabrication Plant

The French decision to turn to industrial plutonium recycling through MOX fuel was taken relatively recently, by (he mid-1980s, when recycling of valuable materials emerged as a satisfactory back-end solution for the fuel cycle. The French strategy currently relies on an industrial structure comprising the COGEMA reprocessing plants at La Hague with a total capacity of over 1600 tHM, the existing MOX fabrication facilities at Dessel (BELGONUCLEAERE PO Plant) and Cadarache (COGEMA Cadarache Plant) with a capacity reaching 65 tHM. In order to implement the French program of recycling plutonium through MOX fuel in 20 to 28 PWR reactors, and to serve foreign utilities as well, it was decided to create the Melox Company (50 Cogema, 50 Framatome), the goal of which is the construction and the operation of the Melox plant. This paper describes the main features of Melox design and presents current status of starting-up activities. The Melox plant can be seen as an outstanding achievement,...

Plastic Recycling Feedstock Pyrolyse

Manos Polymer degradation to fuels over microporous catalysts as a novel tertiary plastic recycling method Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 83, 267 (2004). 17. G. Manos, I. Y. Yusof, N. Gangas and N. Papayannakos Tertiary Recycling of Polyethylene to Hydrocarbon Fuels by Catalytic Cracking Over Aluminium Pillared Clays. Energy and Fuels 16, 485 (2002). 24. W. Kaminsky, M. Predel and A. Sadiki Feedstock Recycling of Polymers by Pyrolysis in a Fluidised Bed Reactor. Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 85, 1045 (2004).

Rise of the Biopolymers Recycling versus Degradation

Cellulose Structure

In Chapter 7, the conflict between recycling plastics and causing them to degrade in the environment was briefly discussed in the context of oil based plastics. This chapter is devoted to another naturally biodegradable set of materials called biopolymers. In this case the waste would be both biodegradable and compostable and require no (or less) fossil fuel. However there are potential downsides. Generally, these materials have lower mechanical strength than conventional bags, a slow degradation in standard landfill sites, a limited shelf life (before degradation begins), and it would reduce the value of recycled material if material found its way into the supply chain and contaminated it. This is a major issue with keeping biodegradable plastics separate from recycling infrastructure. Further, any composting would need to be done in a special composting facility until composting infrastructure and legislation is finalised. At the moment the current plastic recycling infrastructure...

Myth Recycling Always Protects the Environment

Garbage Barge

Fact Recycling is a manufacturing process, and therefore it too has environmental impact. The U.S. Office of Technology Assessment says that it is not clear whether secondary manufacturing i.e., recycling produces less pollution per ton of material processed than primary manufacturing. Recycling merely changes the nature of pollution sometimes decreasing it, and sometimes increasing it. This effect is particularly apparent in the case of curbside recycling, which is mandated or strongly encouraged by governments in many communities around the country. Curbside recycling requires that more trucks be used to collect the same amount of waste materials. Instead of one truck picking up 40 pounds of garbage, one will pick up four pounds of recyclables and a second will collect 36 pounds of rubbish. Los Angeles has estimated that due to curbside recycling, its fleet of trucks is twice as large as it otherwise would be 800 vs. 400 trucks. This means more iron ore and coal mining, more steel...

Recycling Is Wasteful and Ineffective

Ask yourself about the utility of recycling. Glass is made from sand. The Earth is not running out of sand. Newspapers, when buried, stay intact for decades and, when burned, become mere ashes. Recycling plastic requires as much or more energy than that used to produce it. Its uses, however, are extraordinary, contributing to a healthier lifestyle for everyone. So, why recycle In 1998, it cost Americans 36 billion to get rid of 210 million tons of municipal waste. It probably costs more today. Part of that multi-billion cost is the additional element of recycling requirements. It's not like you have a choice. New York City publishes a brochure on recycling that says bluntly It's the law.

Sample Bid Specification For Recycling On Construction Projects

The sample bid specification (guide spec) is designed to address the concern of builders that if recycling means incurring higher waste management costs, those who choose to recycle would be at a competitive disadvantage. The spec is setup so that the contractor makes a waste management plan and a cost estimate for recycling after being selected as the builder on a project. You are encouraged to photocopy the guide spec for use and distribution. Building owners and architects can use the guide spec to inform prospective builders,that the project requires the chosen builder to develop a recycling plan. It requires the contractor, after being selected as the builder, to provide a recycling plan and cost estimate. If the contractor determines that recycling will cost more than regular disposal, the owner can choose whether to go ahead with the plan and pay the extra cost. The guide spec refers to the Recycling Economics Worksheet and the Markets Directory found in this guidebook. C....

OFRU Recycling GmbH Co KG Babenhausen Germany

Ofru Recycling Asc 100

The Swiss coating manufacturer Karl Bubenhofer AG was planning to acquire various wash plants for cleaning batch, mixing and multi-trip containers efficiently. The contaminated solvents obtained during the wash process were then to be treated automatically by distillation. The distillation plant had to have a suitable output, operate continuously and be simple to operate. Another requirement was the ability to combine this plant with the wash plants in a new building complex. A distillation plant suitable for this purpose was supplied by OFRU Recycling in Babenhausen Germany. Rio Beer supplied not only the wash plant design but also integrated OFRU Recycling from Babenhausen in Germany with its solvent recovery plants. OFRU Recycling provided the necessary expertise from the paints and coatings sector.

Recycling of waste demolition of IBM laboratories Winchester

IBM has a general recycling policy which seeks to reuse or recycle about 50 per cent of the non-hazardous waste produced by the company.6 When in 1993 the company decided to demolish an office block in the heart of an estate of computer laboratories at Hursley near Winchester, it decided to collapse the 1960s building subject to the following criteria

The environmental impacts of plastics and plastics recycling

Moreover, the range of plastic types, together with their additives makes separation into sufficiently homogeneous types for recycling purposes a serious problem. On the other hand, plastics are difficult to compact, have a high volume weight ratio, and are resistant to degradation. All of these make landfill, as an alternative to recycling, an unattractive, even if sometimes unavoidable, option. Incineration can also pose problems, and has been seen as unattractive because of public opposition. Some of this arises from opposition to incineration of MSW in general, some from a concern with the pollution that might arise from the burning of additives. For instance, an important attribute of PVC is that the additives have significant environmental implications for air quality when incinerated. However, in an LCA study, Bruvoll (1998) found that the costs of recycling exceeded those for incineration even when the social cost of dioxins (which has high marginal costs) is included. Using...

Other Methods of Recycling and Waste Disposal Options

In Chapter 1, chemical recycling and energy recovery were introduced as alternatives to mechanical recycling. We have seen how plastics can be reprocessed if they are pure streams, if they can be sorted, or if suitable blends can be obtained. We have also seen potential applications for mixed plastics where the quality of the final product is reduced, but the inherent properties of all plastics such as rot-resistance can be utilised. An example of this is in wood replacement applications. However, material that is highly contaminated and mixed may be difficult or perhaps even impossible to recycle mechanically. Remember that cleaning and sorting can be difficult, costly and laborious. Other technologies for the recovery of materials will now be considered, these are listed in Table 8.1 along with the definitions already introduced in Chapter 5 1 . Chemical recycling technologies, like mechanical recycling, place restrictions on the quality of feedstock that they can handle. Energy...

Mandatory Recycling Laws Are Problematic

Policy makers, in the mistaken belief that recycling is the answer, increasingly are considering mandatory take back and or recycling laws that is, shifting the responsibility for waste back to the producer to recycle the waste accompanied by green design mandates. Policy makers assume that requiring manufacturers to take back and recycle used products will create incentives for them to make more eco-friendly products. Efforts in recycling e-waste at the federal, state, and local levels have been made more difficult due to environmental activists and a misinformed media, says the author. Efforts in recycling e-waste at the federal, state, and local levels have been made more difficult due to environmental activists and a misinformed media, says the author. This idea is an outgrowth of two concepts pushed by eco-activists product stewardship and extended producer responsibility. These policies hold that because natural resources are limited, measures must be taken to conserve those...

Recycling Laws Help Reduce Waste

Nova Scotians are world leaders in recycling and it began with a grass roots environmental movement. Their waste disposal rate (the trash they must put in landfill) is 45 percent lower than Canada's overall rate and more than 50 percent lower than California's. and Canada the jobs recycling creates and the reduced environmental impact. And as Kenney pointed out, making things from recycled material takes less energy. Most importantly, the public has embraced the process and takes pride in the environmental effort.

Obstacles to Recycling

Despite the large volume of used electronics and the valuable resources contained within them, economic and regulatory factors discourage these products' recycling and reuse. Specifically Consumers generally have to pay fees and drop off their used electronics at often inconvenient locations to have them recycled or refurbished for reuse. Consumers in Snohomish County, Washington, for instance, may have to travel more than an hour to the nearest drop-off location, which then charges between 10 and 27 per unit, depending on the type and size of the product. Consumers in the Portland, Oregon area pay one local recycler 50 cents per pound to have their used computers recycled, which is about 28 for an average-sized desktop computer. Recyclers and refurbishers charge these fees because costs associated with recycling and refurbishing outweigh the revenue received from recycled commodities or refurbished units. This point was underscored by the International Association of Electronics...

Used Battery Recycling

Plastics Recycling Operations

Lead-acid batteries from automotive applications normally have a shorter service life than the car itself. After their service life has elapsed, they are no longer suitable for use. Because of their high lead content, lead-acid batteries have always been eagerly snapped up by secondary lead smelters. Via the car dealer and garage network, lead-acid batteries are collected in large quantities and then transported to secondary lead smelters. The logistics system is geared to lead recycling. The first battery reprocessing step yields not only lead but also PP in a form of the casing fragments. Accordingly, the polymer is available without additional cost. As the casing makes up a substantial part of the total battery, the quantities of polypropylene obtained are sufficient to warrant the operation of a plastics recycling plant (Figure 2). The secondary lead smelter processes up to 60,000 tpa of used batteries corresponding to about 3000 tpa of polypropylene. For this material stream, a...

Step Three Estimate the Intangible Benefits of Recycling

Does your client respond to environmental concerns and values Will recycling improve your company's public image or improve relations with the community Will the implementation of a recycling program give you the edge over a competitor bidding at a similar price Does recycling contribute to your company by giving employees a sense of ' satisfaction Estimate the intangible benefits of recycling below 14a Public relations value of __ 14b Value of recycling to your _ 17 Total benefit (or cost, if less than zero) of recycling Add lines 15 and 16 17 . If line 17 is greater than zero, the intangible benefits of recycling make it effective overall. If line 17 is less than zero, it shows the total cost of recycling for the project including intangible benefits.

Recycling Electronics Has Environmental and Financial Benefits

EPA has spent about 2 million on several voluntary programs to help overcome some of the factors discouraging recycling and reuse of used electronics. For example, the Plug-In To eCycling campaign sponsors partnerships with industry and state and local governments to make recycling used electronics less expensive and more convenient for consumers. In 2004, Plug-In To eCycling sponsored four pilot projects involving collection events at retailers such as Best Buy, Good Guys, Office Depot, and Staples, in which over 11 million pounds of used electronics were collected. Another program the Federal Electronics Challenge leverages U.S. government purchasing power to promote environmentally preferable management of used electronics throughout their life cycle procurement, operation and maintenance, and end-of-life management. Through its participation in this program, the Bonneville Power Administration BPA has already documented cost savings associated with longer life spans for the...

Step Two Estimate the Cost Effectiveness of Recycling

Method 1 Hire a recycling hauler, that is, a hauler who willcollect all waste, sort out at least three types of recyclable materials and transport them to appropriate buyers, and transport the remaining waste to a landfill. The recycling hauler receives the revenues for the recycled materials. If the recycling hauler takes materials to a materials recovery facility, make sure the facility will recycle at least three types of material and process all loads, including clean demo loads. Use the following formula to determine the costs benefits of recycling under Method 1 . 5 Cgst per cy for hauling by a non-recycling _ 6 Cost per cy for hauling by a recycling __ 8 Total net benefit (or cost, if less than zero) of recycling Multiply lines 7 and 1 8 _ Method 2 Builder separates recyclable materials from waste and arranges for their transportation to buyers. Use the following formula to determine the costs benefits of recycling under Method 2 13 Net benefit (or cost, if less than zero) of...

Recycling Is Effective

In the following viewpoint Tom Zeller Jr. weighs the pros and cons of recycling and concludes that recycling makes environmental and economic sense. While he acknowledges that recycling is an expensive and energy-consuming endeavor, the net cost of recycling is less than that of making new products. Many cities have found ways to reduce recycling costs, and even energy spent recycling old products is less than energy spent creating new products, according to Zeller. Furthermore, because new products increase the amount of packaging that gets thrown out, recycling is a good way to reduce the total amount of garbage that is piling up across the globe. Zeller concludes that recycling is energy- and cost-efficient, and he supports laws that require product manufacturers and retailers to share the cost of recycling. Recycling . . . not only conserves natural resources and reduces the amount of waste that must be burned or buried, it also reduces pollution and the demand for energy.

Private Recycling Efforts Are Adequate

The nation's leading computer and electronics manufacturers, by running their own recycling programs for some time now, have developed skills beyond designing and constructing new computers They now know how best and most effectively to take them apart. No two take-back and recycling programs are the same. Companies are testing and devising methods that best work for them, their contractors, and their customers. Furthermore, because companies are in the driver's seat, they are continuously looking for ways to improve their recycling and reuse programs, making it easier for customers to return used products, and finding ways to collect and break down the used equipment more cost-effectively. As Dell Sustainable Business Director Pat Nathan told The Dallas Morning News, Dell is looking to ana- lyze data from suppliers and customers to develop more efficient recycling methods, eventually recycling computers at a lower cost than its competitors can and offering customers a lower price....

Recycling Is Not Environmentally Friendly

In the following viewpoint author Daniel K. Benjamin argues that recycling does not help conserve natural resources or protect the environment. He believes that recycling programs are an overreaction to myths the public has been fed about a so-called garbage crisis. Benjamin contends that no such crisis exists In his opinion, there is enough space to hold all of America's garbage, landfills do not produce dangerous gases, and natural resources are not being depleted. Furthermore, he suggests that recycling may produce as much pollution as primary manufacturing and curbside recycling programs because more vehicles are required to transport the trash to and from recycling centers. He points out that landfills have more capacity for trash than ever before and that harmful gases emitted by landfills are not due to household waste but by illegally dumped industrial waste. Benjamin concludes there are enough resources to meet the world's demand for products and that recycling is an...

Mandatory Recycling Is Wrong

The latter is actually true everybody is recycling. But that is the result of government force, not a voluntary choice. The state's monopolist garbage-collection service no longer accepts garbage they will only collect leftovers and other biodegradables. Any other kind of garbage that accidentally finds its way to your garbage bin can result in a nice little fine (it really isn't that little) and the whole neighborhood could face increased garbage collection rates (i.e., even larger increases than usual they tend to increase annually or biannually anyway).

Recycling Is Ineffective

In the following viewpoint author Per Bylund argues that recycling is inefficient. He claims that people are forced to sort recyclable materials and then have to go out of their way to make sure the materials are disposed of properly. The cost of wasted time from people having to drive the recyclables to trash collection centers, Bylund contends, are not factored into the costs of recycling. Furthermore, the auto emissions from so many people driving to dispose of their garbage is another environmental cost. Bylund refers to a current problem in Stockholm, Sweden, to illustrate another cost of recycling Trash piled up at collection centers are attracting rats, thus increasing the risk of disease. Yet another problem is that the government forces people to recycle, and in Bylund's opinion this is inappropriate the government should not have to force its citizens to do anything that is worth doing. For these reasons, Bylund concludes that recycling programs are ineffective. Per Bylund,...

Recycling Should Be Mandatory

In the following viewpoint Kathleen Ochshorn argues that mandatory recycling laws help reduce waste, lessen environmental impact, create jobs, generate profits, and promote a sense of community. She uses the example of Nova Scotia's recycling laws to show these benefits of mandatory recycling. In that community, residents are required to sort their trash, which keeps nonessential waste out of landfills. Also, trash is picked up once every two weeks, which reduces the gas needed for trash trucks and produces less air pollution. In Ochshorn's opinion, recycling is good for the local economy. She explains that the sale of recyclables brings in profits to the community and also creates jobs in the recycling industry. For all these reasons, Ochshorn concludes that mandatory recycling systems are an effective and profitable way of promoting community environmentalism.

Water recycling decreases discharge to sensitive water bodies

In some cases, the impetus for water recycling comes not from a water supply need, but from a need to eliminate or decrease wastewater discharge to the ocean, an estuary, or a stream. For example, high volumes of treated wastewater discharged from the San Jose Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant into the south San Francisco Bay threatened the area's natural salt water marsh. In response, a 140 million recycling project was completed in 1997. The South Bay Water Recycling Program

Recycling Is a Responsible Thing to Do

According to the Environmental Protection Agency, there are approximately 8,660 curbside recycling programs in the United States. When I spoke to Sally Steele, Lunenburg waste reduction coordinator, she added that the severity of the climate here helps people work closely together, gathering wood or sharing tools, for example. She heads up an educational program that introduces green teams of students who take the recycling message to other students. In schools, trash is sorted in lunchrooms and classrooms. The recycling motto here is Reduce Reuse Recycle. So would such a streamlined and aggressive recycling system work in Florida or other places in the United States It would certainly reduce the times we put garbage out, perhaps to once a week. It would also make us take more ownership over our waste, over the environmental impact of our lives. Maybe it would even accomplish

Source of waste postindustrial vs postconsumer recycling

On the basis of data from the Netherlands, it is found that the quantity of plastic waste being reabsorbed into the production system almost matches the quantity of postindustrial waste (Joosten, Hekkert and Worrell (2000). This is not surprising as the recycling rate for post-industrial material has been high for a long time, whilst the post consumer recycling rate has been low. In-house recycling of scrap plastics process waste is carried out extensively. It makes financial sense to recycle post-industrial plastic waste as it is contaminant-free, consists of a single, identified polymer type and there is a demand for the recycled product. Thus, it is standard practice amongst resin producers, and most large fabricators to gather, recycle, and rework as much scrap as is possible in their processes. Scrap plastic is produced at every stage of manufacture. Resin producers, fabricators and converters all generate wastes from off-grade products, spillage and equipment cleaning....

Recycling Should Not Be Mandatory

In the following viewpoint author Michael D. Shaw argues that recycling should not be required by law. Shaw believes that recycling efforts are more of a trend than a science-based solution for environmental problems. He contends that although some recycling programs yield good end-products, there are enough renewable resources and enough space in landfills to avoid recycling. Shaw points out manufacturers are finding creative ways to turn recycled materials into profitable products, such as milk jugs used for plastic lumber, without mandated recycling programs in place. In Shaw's opinion, Americans have overly glorified the role of recycling as the only way waste management programs can be run successfully. Shaw concludes that since voluntary recycling is sufficient, there is no need to require it by law. Michael D. Shaw, Got Waste The Debate over Recycling, HealthNewsDigest.com, May 23, 2005. Reproduced by permission of the author. Recycling surely has its place, and its role is...

Cost of establishing a recycling collection scheme

Table 1a provides a general breakdown of the expense involved in establishing this type of recycling It Is necessary for the operator of the recycling scheme to obtain a Marine Dealer's Licence under the Marine Stores Act. 1902. This allows for the collection and selling of all materials suitable for recycling, as discussed within this paper. Table 1a Capital expenditure in providing a recycling collection scheme Table 1a Capital expenditure in providing a recycling collection scheme

The Effects Of Materials Substitution On Vehicle Recycling

Smaller and lighter vehicles is undoubtedly permanent, and the future shape of the vehicle recycling industry may be analysed in terms of possible changes in size and weight of cars, and also in their composition and mode of manufacture. A detailed analysis by Roig et al.10 divided the car by size into three market categories for the U.S.A. It presented data on 1975 model year vehicles and predicted materials use in 1980 and 1990 model year cars. Clearly, by suitable choice of date, the analysis could be made to yield very different answers. However, it is clear that, to remain profitable in the face of any future increases in the costs of utilities and labour, the vehicle recycling industry must seek further improvements in its efficiency.

What Is The Future Of Water Recycling

Water recycling has proven to be effective and successful in creating a new and reliable water supply, while not compromising public health. Nonpotable reuse is a widely accepted practice that will continue to grow. However, in many parts of the United States, the uses of recycled water are expanding in order to ac commo date the needs of the envi ron ment and growing water supply demands. Advances in wastewater treatment technology and health studies of indirect potable reuse have led many to predict that planned indirect potable reuse will soon become more common. While water recy cling is a sustain able approach and can be cost-effective in the long term, the treatment of wastewater for reuse and the installation of distribution systems can be initially expensive compared to such water supply alternatives as imported water or ground water. Institutional barriers, as well as varying agency priorities, can make it difficult to implement water recycling projects. Finally, early in the...

Water recycling can decrease diversion of freshwater from sensitive ecosystems

Copyright 1994, Mono Lake Committee In California, Mono Lake's water quality and natural resources wereprogressively declining from lack of stream flow. In 1994, the Los Angeles Department ofWater andPower was required to stop diverting one-fifth of the water it historically exported from the basin. The development of water recycling projects in LosAngeles hasprovided a way topartially offset the loss of Mono Basin water, and to allow the restoration of Mono Lake to move ahead. Copyright 1994, Mono Lake Committee In California, Mono Lake's water quality and natural resources wereprogressively declining from lack of stream flow. In 1994, the Los Angeles Department ofWater andPower was required to stop diverting one-fifth of the water it historically exported from the basin. The development of water recycling projects in LosAngeles hasprovided a way topartially offset the loss of Mono Basin water, and to allow the restoration of Mono Lake to move ahead.

Recycling concrete Wessex Water

Neither composite floors such as Slimdeck nor reinforced floors can be disassembled. For structural reasons they use permanent bonding between the steel and concrete, resulting in limited potential for reuse. Recycling by crushing and separation of the materials is a common practice.

The recycling of concrete reclaimed from a former airport runway for use as piling mat and fill mate

The reuse or recycling of concrete can often avoid high costs and the environmental impacts associated with disposal to landfill due to taxes and transportation. Nevertheless, the feasibility of recycling concrete tends to depend on the location. If there is no local demand it is not usually economical to recycle concrete due to transport costs and the availability of cheaper primary aggregates. The introduction of the Aggregates Levy in April 2002, which is applied to the extraction of primary materials, may go some way to changing market conditions in favour of recycling as aggregate or reuse as fill.

Mechanical vs feedstock recycling

The distinction between mechanical recycling and feedstock (or chemical) recycling is that mechanical requires physical separation, whereas feedstock recycling converts mixed PE PP PS PVC into basic hydrocarbon building blocks. Thus, mechanical recycling is appropriate for the primary and secondary recycling routes discussed above, through the grinding of plastic products into pellets or flakes. Feedstock recycling technologies, whilst they can handle contaminated and mixed material, are relatively expensive. Mechanical recycling is primarily a method of treating single polymer waste. The waste is converted into pellets or granules for extrusion into new products. This allows the addition of virgin polymer materials, pigments and stabilisers. Feedstock recycling is a relatively new recycling technology, which can be used to treat mixed polymer waste. The method used depends on the nature of the waste. For example, thermolysis is used to convert mixed plastic wastes back into the...

Consumers Do Most of the Recycling Work

But the real question here . . . is does this recycling structure work The answer is that, from a government point of view, while it can probably be thought of as working, from an environmental point of view, the answer is definitely no. This coercive recycling structure is set up in layers, where the consumer (producer of waste) gets to do most of the work of sorting, cleaning, and transporting the trash to collection centers. Government-appointed companies then empty the containers and transport the materials to regional centers where the trash is prepared for recycling. And then everything is transported to centralized recycling plants where the materials are prepared for reuse or burning. Finally what is left of the materials is sold to companies and individuals at subsidized prices so that they can make environmentally friendly choices. What is interesting about this Soviet-style planned recycling is that it is officially profitable. It is supposed to be resource efficient, since...

The Economics of Recycling Construction Waste

This section consists of the Recycling Economics Worksheet and two examples of how the worksheet has b en filled out for local projects. Building professionals, waste haulers, and anyone else interested are encouraged to make copies of the worksheet for use and distribution. The worksheet is designed so that builders and haulers can estimate the amounts of various waste types expected to result from a project, then plug in hauling and other costs for recycling. Two methods of recycling are considered on-site separation of recyclable materials and off-site sorting of mixed waste to recover at least three types of materials by a waste hauler, transfer station, or materials recoveiy facility. Please note that the Markets Directory includes a listing of some of the businesses providing this service in the Twin Cities area. Recycling Economics Worksheet Residential And Commercial Construction The following worksheet is designed to help determine the cost effectiveness of recycling waste...

United States Beverage Container Recycling

Recycling rates have declined since the early 1990s, despite the fact that the population served by curbside recycling programs has almost quadrupled. driving it around the neighborhood rather than working or investing in a productive market According to the movement's books, more money flows in than flows out therefore recycling is profitable. But this ignores the costs of coercion.

Recycling Conserves Resources

The following viewpoint was published by the City of Fort Collins Recycling Department. In it, the author contends that recycling conserves natural resources and energy. According to the author, recycling conserves timber, water, and mineral ores. Furthermore, when products are made from recycled sources, less energy is used because the materials are not raw and have already been processed. This conserves not only energy but resources as well. For example, when fewer minerals are processed, less toxic emissions are released into the air and water. In addition to the environmental benefits of recycling, the author argues that recycling helps save money spent on manufacturing and also creates thousands of recycling-related jobs. The author concludes that recycling is successful because it protects the environment, reduces waste and pollution, promotes a sense of community, and creates economic incentives. Why Recycling Matters, City of Fort Collins, CO. fcgov.com. Accessed May 7, 2008....

Recyclingreuse practices

There is very little information regarding the recycling reuse of construction site wastes and, due to the lack of data, this category of waste appears to be incorporated into the figures for recycling reuse of demolition waste. Germany's Waste Avoidance and Waste Management Act covers the topic of reuse recycling of building wastes stressing that reuse recycling has priority over disposal materials hampering or preventing reuse recycling should be collected, kept and treated separately By imposing regulations, Denmark has been able to start establishing databases on construction waste arisings and recycling reuse routes. Table 6.3 indicates the waste materials available for reuse in construction activities in Denmark and the extent to which reuse is currently practised there. Recycling of asphalt road planings The recycling and reuse of asphalt is an area in which the Germans have made much progress. The repair, maintenance and reconstruction of German highways generates...

Creation of a Recycling and Recovery Infrastructure for Plastics

This chapter steps away from the technology of plastics recycling to look at the bigger issues facing the plastic recycling industry. Chapter 1 highlighted the issue that for plastics recycling to be sustainable long term, a balance must be reached between the technology, economics and the environmental issues. The plastics recycling industry must be self-supporting. In order for this situation to be reached a number of criteria must be met 1. The development of cost effective sorting and recycling technologies capable of creating quality materials from waste materials. 2. The design of parts that can be recycled easily (design for recycling, DFR). 5. The creation of a recycling infrastructure, allowing post consumer waste to move through the reprocessing chain in a timely and effective manner.

Recycling Wastes Resources

Proponents of recycling often claim that it saves resources. They focus on the saving of a particular resource, like the current posters up around Drake stating that for every ton of recycled newspaper, 17 trees are saved. That is true, but the long term effects of recycling are detrimental. More trucks and more resources are required to handle the massive bulk of recycling, and all of that transportation ultimately does more harm than good. According to Franklin Associates, an environmental research firm, an extensive recycling program is 35 percent more costly than conventional trash disposal. Curbside recycling pick-ups, the kind most people do, is a staggering 55 percent more costly than a conventional landfill. Recycling requires twice as many trucks, twice as much gas consumption, and thus twice as much atmospheric pollution. If nothing else, recycling still offers the average citizen a sense of duty and action, like they are really helping to save the world. It makes me feel...

Myth Recycling Saves Resources

Fact Using less of one resource usually means using more of another. Curbside recycling is substantially more costly and uses far more resources than a program in which disposal is combined with a voluntary drop-off buy-back option. The reason Curbside recycling of household rubbish uses huge amounts of capital and labor per pound of material recycled. Overall, curbside recycling costs between 35 and 55 percent more than simply disposing of the item. It typically wastes resources. In the ordinary course of daily living, we already reuse most higher value items. The only things that intentionally end up in the trash are both low in value and costly to reuse or recycle. Yet these are the items that municipal recycling programs are targeting the very things that consumers have already decided are too worthless or costly to deal with further. All of the profitable, socially productive opportunities for recycling were long ago co-opted by the private sector, because they

Federal Laws Promote Recycling Participation

The Congress affirmed its commitment to reducing waste and encouraging recycling, first through enactment of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976, and then again with passage of the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990. Both RCRA and the Pollution Prevention Act address alternatives to waste disposal. RCRA promotes the use of resource recovery, either through facilities that convert waste to energy or through recycling. To promote recycling, RCRA required EPA to develop guidelines for identifying products that are or can be produced with recovered materials. RCRA also required federal agencies to procure items that are, to the maximum extent practicable, produced with recovered materials. . . . EPA has implemented several promising voluntary programs to encourage recycling and reuse of used electronics. Without EPA authority to require recycling of these products or to require other federal agencies to participate, however, these programs' successes have been and will...

Recycling Is Environmentally Friendly

This viewpoint is taken from the Economist, a British paper that reports on politics, science and technology, cultural trends, and business. The anonymous author argues that recycling is environmentally friendly and claims that recycling reduces air pollution because it causes less waste to be burned in incinerators and reduces the amount that must be stored in landfills (which give off methane and other toxic emissions). Recycling also conserves natural resources because it makes products out of already existing materials instead of mining for new or raw materials. In addition, the author reports that new recycling technologies require less human labor and less transport than in the past, making the process more efficient than ever. Also, more companies are packaging their products in recycled materials, which further reduces carbon dioxide emissions and garbage. For all of these reasons, the author concludes that recycling is environmentally friendly and supports global efforts to...

Recycling Opportunities

Used oil filters may be brought to many service stations or point - of - purchase establishments for recycling. DISPOSAL Oil filters should be punctured on the dome end and allowed to hot-drain for 12 to 24 hours. Hot draining is simply draining the filters immediately after taking them off a hot engine. Crushing the filter after this process will remove even more oil. After draining, the filters should be stored in a sealed, labeled container. Many recycling operators will provide you with these storage containers. If recycling is not a viable option, drained filters may be landfilled as a nonhazardous waste. RECYCLING OPPORTUNITIES Currently there are no recycling opportunities for wood preservatives. Try to reuse old wood for new projects or offer to others that may reuse such materials.

Voluntary Recycling Yields useful Products

Are there any good news recycling stories Certainly. Aluminum recycling is one of the original triumphs. Glass waste has been used in the production of new glass for decades. Engineered wood products, melding sawmill waste with newly harvested forest products, offer advantages over conventional goods in price, strength, and durability. There is also an active market in plastics recycling. Poly-Wood, Inc. transforms milk jugs, once destined for landfills, into recycled plastic lumber used to create a pleasing line of casual outdoor furniture. For my money, it beats wicker and wood hands down. Recycline manufactures a range of personal care items, all from recycled plastic. The company also supplies postpaid mailers, for return of the products, into their destiny as plastic lumber.

Assessing The Potential For Reuse And Recycling

Designers and specifiers constantly are faced with choices between alternatives. So that deconstruction and subsequent reuse and & recycling can be brought into the process of choosing, alongside cost, performance, durability etc, suitable selection criteria need U to be established. Decisions about how and why to choose reuse or recycling, and how best to minimise the quantities of materials sent to landfill, will be influenced by the criteria used to evaluate the environmental impact of the alternatives. It will be important to ensure that the criteria for assessment and evaluation are agreed among the members of the project team, and with the client, early in the project. This process will be especially difficult to follow rigorously since none of us knows how suitable today's building components and materials will be for reuse or recycling in 30 or 50 year's time. Furthermore, it is difficult to assess the potential for future reuse or recycling since there is no agreed...

When designing for reuse or recycling what type of reuse or recycling are you designing for

So great are the differences between the processes of reconditioning for reuse and the separation and processing of materials for recycling that the first and most important decision - whether for an entire building or any component within - is Are you designing it for reuse or for recycling If you are designing for recycling, what type of recycling separation of materials for off-site reprocessing and recycling, eg chipboard manufacture 3 processes involved in recycling the materials of which something is made. Therefore, for each component of the building being q recycling. Section 2.3.4 addresses the need to ensure that those engaged in deconstruction for reuse or recycling are aware of the Some decisions taken at the design stage of a project will be better suited to achieving more-effective reuse, while others may be more appropriate to achieving more-effective material recycling. This is illustrated in Table 2.3.

The recycling process

Plastics can be recovered for either material or calorific values. This report focuses on recovery for material use, but it is important to note that energy recovery is more important in most countries. Table 3.5 gives data for European Union countries for 1999. The degree of variation is marked, with some countries recovering very little plastic (e.g. Ireland) and others a very high proportion (e.g. Denmark). As the percentage of unrecovered waste increases across countries, the proportion going to energy recovery tends to rise, as in Denmark, Netherlands and Sweden. The only country for which recovered waste represents more than 20 of total consumption and for which material recycling is more important than energy recovery is Germany. Table 3.5. Plastic recycling and energy recovery ( ) in Europe in 1999 Table 3.5. Plastic recycling and energy recovery ( ) in Europe in 1999 Recycling Closed loop recycling vs. open loop recycling. Mechanical recycling vs. feedstock or chemical...

The plastics recycling industry

The recycling of plastics involves various separate activities. These are collection sorting cleaning and granulation and re-processing. Typically, each of these different activities are undertaken by different firms or public bodies. They are very different activities from those of firms involved in virgin plastics production, with much less technological sophistication. This is not to say that there are not difficult problems associated with separation. Factors affecting the profitability of recycling include the price paid to the collector or intermediate processor, processing costs, and selling price. The price paid to the collector is dependent on the collection method used and the distance from generation to the intermediate processor or recycler. Processing costs are determined by the quality of the material and the throughput of the facility. The price paid by the plastic product manufacturer for the processed resin is generally lower than that of competing resins. Vertical...

Lessons for designing for deconstruction to facilitate reuse and recycling

Segregation is essential to realise the maximum benefit from materials streams produced by deconstruction processes. Designers will be able to facilitate the potential for recycling materials by ensuring the materials used are capable of easy separation and segregation and further processing to create useful recycled materials.

Why are you designing for reuse or recycling

The most important issue to guide the project team during the design phase of a building project will be the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of designing to facilitate reuse or recycling. Only in this way can the many competing demands on time and resources be established and balanced. to promote a product that is well-suited to recycling to develop the skills of designing for reuse or recycling in anticipation of future pressures to do so.

What Is Water Recycling

While recycling is a term generally applied to aluminum cans, glass bottles, and newspapers, water can be recycled as well. Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial processes, toilet flushing, and replenishing a ground water basin (referred to as ground water recharge). Water is sometimes recycled and reused onsite for example, when an industrial facility recycles water used for cooling processes. A common type of recycled water is water that has been reclaimed from municipal wastewater, or sewage. The term water recycling is generally used synonymously with water reclamation and water reuse. Through the natural water cycle, the earth has recy cled and reused water for millions of years. Water recycling, though, generally refers to projects that use tech nol ogy to speed up these natural processes. Water recy cling is often characterized as unplanned or planned. A common example of unplanned water...

Myth Without Forced Mandates There Wouldnt Be Any Recycling

Fact Long before state or local governments had even contemplated the word recycling, the makers of steel, aluminum, and thousands of other products were recycling manufacturing scraps. Some operated post-consumer drop-off centers. As for the claim that the private sector promotes premature or excessive disposal, this ignores an enormous body of evidence to the contrary. Firms only survive in the marketplace if they take into account all costs. Fifty years ago, when labor was cheap compared to materials, goods were built to be repaired, so that the expensive materials could be used for a longer period of time. As the price of labor has risen and the cost of materials has fallen, manufacturers have responded by building items to be used until they break, and then discarded. There is no bias against recycling there is merely a market-driven effort to conserve the most valuable resources. . . . Except in a few rare cases, the free market is eminently capable of providing both disposal...

Drivers Encouraging Deconstruction For Reuse And Recycling

Constructing buildings in ways that will allow them to be easily dismantled or deconstructed is already feasible from a technical point of view. However, the main drivers that will bring about the widespread reuse of building components and recycling of building materials are likely to be non-technical - environmental, socio-economic, commercial, political and risk management. Few of the following principal drivers are yet strong enough to motivate clients and construction teams to implement design for deconstruction. However, their potential influence during the life of buildings now being designed is already apparent.

Policies targeted directly at recycling

Recycling is not an economic activity which should be supported by government policy measures in and for itself. However, environmental externalities associated with solid waste generation and management can be considered public bads. Moreover, solid waste is an area in which it is notoriously difficult to apply first-best environmental policies to reduce these bads (Eichner and Pethig 2001, Calcott and Walls, 2000). This is due in part to the mixed nature of much of the solid waste stream. A wide variety of substances with very different potential environmental impacts are aggregated. This is commonly the case for municipal solid waste. For industrial waste, waste separation may be less costly since it is often (but not always) more homogeneous, but there is still considerable heterogeneity in many cases. Distinguishing between all types of waste in terms of their different externalities would impose exorbitant administrative (private and public) costs. As noted above, targeted...

Competition aspects of waste collection and recycling

Arguments can be made that there are likely to be restraints of competition within DSD. If companies fulfil the take-back obligations on their own, then no competition issues arise. However, DSD was introduced to help realise some element of cost reduction - i.e. through economies of scale. As such, most firms use the system, and this is likely to have implications for the degree of competition. By its very nature, it introduces an element of co-operative behaviour between certain firms. Moreover, it may be controlled by small number of firms. It can represent a monopoly for recycling, with no incentive to minimise collection costs or organise in an efficient manner (OECD, 1996).

Government Recycling Efforts Cost Too Much

Some argue that these recycling and reuse efforts by the private sector do not even come close to addressing the millions of obsolete electronics that are entering the waste stream each year. Yet this argument fails to acknowledge the enormous achievements the industry has made in a relatively short time. Last year 2004 , Dell, HP, and IBM collectively recycled 160 million pounds of computers and computer equipment. This figure doesn't include the number of units remanufactured for donations and reuse.

Reuse And Recycling Of Materials On Site

Pre-sorting the waste is fundamental to the success of reuse and recycling programmes. For example, packaging is a major source of waste on site. The polyethylene wrapping from bricks, nylon webbing bands, metal bands, edge and corner protectors, and polystyrene blocks could all be recycled, but most goes in the same skip as all the other site waste materials. This renders the packaging materials almost valueless. Although the recycling technology exists and is applied in other industries, there is no evidence of its application in construction because of a lack of financial incentive and the complex relations that exist between the main contractors and often numerous sub-contractors on site.

Reuse And Recycling Recovery opportunities

During the past decades reuse and recycling of demolition wastes has occurred on a rather informal level. Reuse and recycling has only been applied if certain materials were regarded as valuable or saleable by the contractors. Otherwise the waste has been disposed of in the cheapest way. Architectural salvage is a growing business whereby elements of demolition are recovered for reuse elsewhere through a network of wholesalers and retailers. Table 5.1 summarises the recycling opportunities for the main materials used in building civil work construction. Recycling Reuse, recycling Reuse, Recycling Reuse, recycling Reuse, recycling Recycling Reuse, recycling Recycling Recycling Recycling Assurance regarding the performance of the material in the form of documentation on the product characteristics or references to its successful use is a major condition for recycling. If customers do not have confidence in the recycled products based on secondary raw materials, recycling of demolition...

Recycling Breeds Vermin and Disease

If we consider the costs in monetary terms, in terms of wasted time, and in terms of increased emissions from automobiles, this is hardly environmentally friendly. Adding the annoyance and the increased risk for disease, Swedish recycling is at least as disastrous as any other government scheme. . . .

Designing for increased reuserecycling in construction and demolition

Box 6.1 Case studies of European research and development projects in design for increased reuse recycling in construction and demolition The objective of the project is to establish the basis for a) the maximum recovery of waste materials from all kinds of construction and demolition activities and b) the least possible environmental impact of building elements during the lifetime of a building, from the construction stage to the final disposal or recycling of the demolition materials. Clients The European Union (l 991-94). In English.

Cost of operating a recycling collection scheme

The average weekly expenditure incurred by a contractor for operating a door to door collection service, varies between 9 cents and 27 cents per dwelling per week. The variation in this cost depends primarily on the frequency of the collection, and the number of employees per recycling scheme. Approximately 70 of the cost can be attributed to wages for the sorting and collection crew employees. It is assumed that employees are averaging 25 hours working time per week and paid at a rate equivalent to the Municipal Employees (WA) Award. Table 2 Cost of operating a recycling collection scheme Table 2 Cost of operating a recycling collection scheme For collection rounds in municipalities that average 10 kilograms per week generation of domestic refuse per dwelling, then a 30 to 40 participation rate of dwellings is required for the operator to reach the break even point for weekly collections of one round. At 20 kilograms per week generation of domestic refuse, the participation rate...

Alberto Noto Recycling Garbage And Recycling

To a religious precept by some, that recycling is the cornerstone of any waste management program, and must be practiced by all people all the time It was nine years ago that John Tierney's landmark article, entitled Recycling Is Garbage appeared in the New York Times Magazine. Focusing primarily on recycling efforts in New York City, he exposed the high expenses in collecting and separating the garbage, and the lack of demand for most of the resulting materials. Moreover, in some cases, such as recycling newspaper, more water pollution ensues (owing to removing the ink), than in making new paper. Besides, trees are specifically grown for this purpose, and are a renewable resource. The National Center for Policy Analysis reports that because of recycling programs, the state of New York spends between 35 million to 54 million more each year on waste disposal.

The recycling scheme

Two feasible options exist for the operation of a separation at source door-to-door collection service for materials suitable for recycling. The first option is for each local council to operate the collection as part of the normal municipal collection. Some local councils have attempted to operate recycling schemes of this nature, but have limited the collection to glass beverage bottles, paper, and aluminium cans. Where this type of partial recycling scheme has been introduced, the participation rate does not usually exceed 40 , with the tonnage of material collected being far less than what could be reasonably expected. Consequently, most councils have found it to be too expensive to continue this type of scheme. This emphasises the need for a recycling scheme to offer the capacity to collect all materials from domestic refuse that are suitable for recycling, not only to make it easy for the participants to cooperate, but to maximise the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of...

Rubber recycling

Characteristics of the rubber recycling market Shredded tyres, also called crumb rubber, have various applications in the rubber recycling sector. Figure 4.7 shows that in the US in 2001, of the total 0.45 million ton (996 million pounds) of crumb rubber produced, asphalt and moulded products were almost equal in market share, and combined had approximately 60 of the total market. The remaining 40 was used for the manufacturing of new products. Figure 4.7 shows that although consumption by all crumb rubber markets increased from 1997 to 2001, the crumb rubber market share of animal bedding, construction, plastic blends, and sport surfacing increased while the other crumb rubber markets shares decreased. The aforementioned engineering studies provide limited support for further relative expansion of rubber recycling operations. Also, most governments are cautious in unambiguously promoting rubber recycling. For instance, the UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry...

Recycling Techniques

Waste Recycling Techinques

Despite increasing research efforts it is not yet economical to separate the wide variety of plastics that end up in the waste stream. The ideal is streams of single, clean and homogeneous recyclates, which present little technical effort for recycling. Of course, streams of this type, mainly industrial, can and are recycled. However, mixed waste streams present more of a technical and economic challenge to recover. An example of a process for mixed plastic waste is that used by Wormser Kunststoff Recycling GmbH (WKR) in Germany. This process can tolerate a certain amount of contamination in the process mixture, which is appropriately treated in an extruder, and cast into large moulds to give products. Methods such as these will be discussed in Chapter 6. Whether the material is reprocessed as a mixed waste stream or is sorted into separate fractions, it still needs to undergo some treatment. A typical recycling route for waste plastics can be split into two types of processes

Chemical Recycling

One other method is chemical recycling, where the polymer is broken down into smaller molecules that can be easily separated from impurities. In chemical recycling, also known as feedstock recycling, plastics are used to make raw materials for petrochemical processes. Common examples of such processes are cracking and hydrogenation. A simple way to imagine chemical recycling is that it is the reverse of the process used to create the polymer chains. Going back to the basics of Chapter 2, polymers are made up of a series of monomers joined together in a polymerisation process. Chemical recycling is often a depolymerisation or degradation process. Here, the macromolecules are broken back into smaller chemical units. Once the monomer is recovered, it can be used to make new polymers. Chemical recycling is especially suited to polymers formed by condensation reactions such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), recycling of polymers A pilot plant was opened in the UK by ICI in 1998 to look...

Resource Recycling

Plastic Recycling Production Flow

Originally, industrial production relied on a linear material flow. Raw materials were mined and upgraded, premixes produced for the manufacture of components and equipment which were then utilized and eventually dumped into landfills after their useful life had elapsed. As the proportion of synthetic products in the total production volume increased, landfilling became ever more of a problem. The consequences of this disposal practice became unforeseeable. The price of landfilling rose dramatically. The resulting bottlenecks called for a fundamental change in our attitude towards disposal. Both industrial producers and consumers have since been looking for new concepts and solutions. As compared to the linear material flow, a cyclical concept offers the advantage of avoiding waste or at least postponing landfilling to a later date. Recycling of materials and products into the production processes soon became a commonly used phrase. Recycling can start in a production process itself...

Reuse And Recycling

It is one thing to design a building for deconstruction to facilitate reuse or recycling it is quite another to ensure that it is actually constructed that way. Designers' proposals and intentions are often changed between detail design and the completion of a building. Those who control the final specification of materials and equipment will have the final say, and they are likely to be 0 driven by other goals such as capital cost and the construction programme. Q

Recycling

Make it easier to ascertain at deconstruction the materials available for recycling specify materials that can be recycled by taking advice from those engaged in the recycling industries (see Appendix B) specify materials for which a recycling market exists by taking advice from those engaged in the recycling industries (see Appendix B). Design the product in a way that makes separation for recycling easy and safe

Updated for the Second Edition

Since the first edition was published in 2001, great strides have been made in increasing recycling rates worldwide. There has been expansion of infrastructure in the UK to support plastic recycling. Major achievements have been made in gaining widespread public support and participation for recycling schemes and specifically the need to manage waste on an individual household level. Council recycling of plastic bottles has become widespread* and the practice of providing free plastic carrier bags by supermarkets has become an issue for the environmentally conscious shopper. Biopolymers are expected to have a major impact on plastic markets in the future and therefore some of the issues of biodegradability versus recycling are expanded in this second edition, as is the wider context of life cycle analysis and legislation. There is still much to do, but if this book is updated in the future for a third edition, hopefully a fully functional plastic recycling system will be operating...

Policy recommendations

If recycling has significant environmental and economic benefits, then the expansion of the capacity of the recycling industry and the improvement of the secondary rubber market has to be promoted further. Most countries discussed in this study acknowledge this. The question remains how this aim should be accomplished. Several policy recommendations have been derived from the above analyses that are aimed specifically at reducing the market failures and barriers for rubber recycling markets. By combining these principles, a more effective market for secondary rubber can be achieved.

Other Sources of Information

This directory is not meant to be a comprehensive list of recycling markets for construction wastes. Rather, it is designed to give a good idea of the types of opportunities available for reusing and recycling construction materials. More complete listings, in particular of single-material markets such as metals and asphalt concrete can be found in the Resourceful Waste Management business recycling guide available from metropolitan county solid waste offices (an updated version of this directory is due in July 1993) and in the Minnesota Recycling Directory, available from the Minnesota Office of Waste Management, phone 6495750. Other good sources of information include MPIRG's BARTER waste exchange program, phone 6274035, and the yellow pages. See Section 6, Reference section for where to find information on handling problem materials, such as fluorescent and HID lamps.

Evaluating The Authors Arguments

Shaw uses history, facts, and examples to make his argument that the United States does not need recycling laws. He does not, however, use any quotations to support his point. If you were to rewrite this article and insert quotations, what authorities might you quote from Where would you place these quotations to bolster the points Shaw makes The following viewpoint was published by the U.S. Government Accountability Office, an agency that investigates how the federal government spends taxpayer dollars. The authors argue that in order to be effective, electronics recycling programs should be required and supported by the federal government. They explain why nongovernmental recycling programs do not work Consumers have to pay a fee to recycle their electronics and are forced to drop them at inconvenient locations. Since electronics are not banned from landfills in forty-six states, many people instead choose to throw their electronics in landfills instead...

AS you read consider the following questions

How much trash can U.S. landfills accommodate, and how does that factor into the author's argument about recycling 3. According to McMillan, how much more expensive is curbside recycling than using a landfill This simple phrase is taught every day to children all around America, instilled in them from the beginning. The act of recycling plastics, papers, glass and aluminum is widely hailed by both governments and environmental agencies in both America and Europe as a necessary step toward saving planet Earth.

How to Use this Directory

Multi-material haulers and processors Organizations that transport and or process more than one construction waste material for recycling. Haulers, transfer stations, and MRFs that accept mixed loads of construction wastes and sort out three or more materials for recycling and Note Organizations listed in the first category are not included in the second category. For example, a business that hauls both wood waste and ' cardboard for recycling would be listed in the first category as accepting . both materials. It would not appear again in the second listing under wood or cardboard.

The Problem in Perspective Europe

Plastic production accounts for about 4 of total oil consumption. Whilst this is not a vast percentage, it still represents a significant potential energy resource saving if plastics can be recovered. However, the main driver for plastics recycling is not energy recovery but landfill avoidance. recovery routes is shown in Figure 10.1. Statistics on the volumes of material being recycled are often difficult to obtain, however, reliable information must be available if recycling targets are to be monitored. As recycling systems and infrastructures develop, the reporting systems and quantitative data required should be easier to obtain in future. From the data that is available, inhouse recycling accounts for some 1.5 ktonnes, traded industrial scrap recyclate at 1.1 ktonnes and post consumer waste mechanical recycling at 1.8 ktonnes. Therefore total mechanical plastic recycling in Europe is estimated as being in excess of 4 ktonnes year 1 . The most effective treatment of recyclates is...

Taejon Republic of Korea

Neulronic feasibility of a PWR core with mixed oxide (MOX) fuels has been investigated as part of the feasibility study for recycling spent fuels in Korea. A typical 3-loop PWR with 900 MWe capacity is selected as reference plant to develop equilibrium core designs with low-leakage fuel management scheme, while incorporating various MOX loading. The fuel management analyses and limited safety analyses show that, safely stated, MOX recycling with 1 3 reload fraction can be accommodated for both annual and 18 month fuel cycle schemes in Korean PWRs, without major design modifications on the reactor systems. Nuclear generated electricity plays vital role in Korea by accounting tor 40 of total electric power generation in 1993, and this trend will continue in the years to come. We have firm plan of building 14 more units (10 PWRs and 4 PHWRs) by the year 2006 besides 9 operating units (8 PWRs and 1 PHWR) as of 1994. These nuclear units will result in an accumulation of more than 7,000 tHM...

Federal Agencies Set Higher Standards for Energy Efficient Products

Perhaps the best precedent for requiring broader federal participation in electronics recycling is the Energy Star program, co-sponsored by Government electronics recycling programs include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The Act bars companies with more than 220pounds of hazardous waste from depositing it in landfills. Government electronics recycling programs include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The Act bars companies with more than 220pounds of hazardous waste from depositing it in landfills.

Extend Landfill Lifespans

Recycling's true value comes from preventing pollution and saving natural resources and energy, not landfill space. Still, it's important to note that recycling is largely responsible for averting a landfill crisis in many parts of the country. Recycling and composting diverted nearly 70 million tons of material away from landfills and incinerators in 2000, up from 34 million tons in 1990.

Create Jobs Economic Development

Recycling is a big industry, comparable in size to our auto and truck manufacturing industry. In 2000, it employed over 1. 1 million people and generated an annual payroll of 37 billion, representing a significant force in the country's economy, job creation and economic development. For comparison, incinerating 10,000 tons of waste creates one job and landfilling 10,000 tons of waste creates six jobs recycling 10,000 tons of waste creates 36 jobs. The public sector's investment in local recycling programs pays great dividends by creating private sector jobs. For every job collecting recyclables, there are 26 jobs in processing the materials and manufacturing them into new products.

Environmental Effects

The main environmental objective is to reduce waste volume going to landfills. This is one example. Refilling or recycling printer cartridges will keep them out of the landfill. Not only does recycling reduce waste but it also conserves precious natural resources. More than three liters of oil are required to produce each new laser printer cartridge. Recycled cartridges are found to be as efficient as new cartridges and may be less expensive. A cartridge can be recycled or recharged up to eight times without loss of print quality. Using a recycled cartridge will not have an effect on the printer's warranty or the print quality. Exposure to printer cartridge ink should be avoided as it will stain skin and clothing.

Environmental policies designed to reduce wasterelated environmental damages

As noted above, the ultimate objective of waste-related environmental policies is to reduce environmental impacts to their economically efficient level. (See OECD, 2004 for a full discussion.) If the use of recyclable materials has fewer waste-related environmental impacts than primary materials, the internalisation of waste-related externalities should increase recycling rates, even if the ultimate policy objective is to decrease environmental damages rather than to increase recycling rates as such. Other types of externalities, such as those associated with upstream primary resource extraction and exploitation, may also be reduced. However, such impacts are best addressed at their point of generation (i.e. forestry, mining, etc.) and not downstream at the point of commodity production or waste generation. If the incentives are appropriate (and there are no other market or policy failures), the level of recycling should be such as to equalise the marginal damages from primary and...

Ethical and Political considerations

In principle, it makes no sense to collect waste streams separately, unless suitable outlets are secured for such flows. This seems the case for soiled and mixed plastic packaging wastes, since these cannot be reprocessed to any better materials than those that substitute low-grade wood and since the option of feedstock recycling is operating at a huge economic loss. Moreover, no serious health, toxicity, or safety problems become apparent in case of less strict collection requirements. However, Green parties contend that the only way to reduce waste generation is to make it prohibitively expensive. As a counter-argument, it may be stated that the funds lost in plastics recycling are better invested in health, education, and social needs. At present, most recycling options have mainly been introduced on an ideological basis, with limited attention to their economic cost and social consequences. These can be tackled using life-cycle analysis methods, i.e. the study of all environmental...

Technological externalities

Technological externalities relate to the use of plastics with characteristics that make recycling more costly or difficult than would otherwise be the case. Examples include the use of composite plastics, special additives or mixing of colours. However, such characteristics cannot be described as market failures, unless there are missing markets in the production-consumption chain, which discourage manufacturers from using optimal product designs. For instance, if manufacturers face no incentives to use more easily recyclable plastics, they will design their products accordingly, even if the social costs of doing so outweigh the social benefits. For instance, a range of modifications to standard PET bottles (e.g. barrier layers in bottles, barrier coatings, etc.) have been developed to allow products such as beer to be packaged in PET bottles. These modifications bring important commercial benefits (or would not be undertaken). However, they are to a greater or lesser extent,...

The nature of potential market imperfections in secondary material markets

As noted above, in this section markets for secondary materials will be examined through the lens of the theory of market efficiency. Not all sources of market inefficiency which affect recycling rates are discussed. For instance, imperfect internalisation of externalities from raw material extraction will have a very significant influence on recycling rates, distorting markets in a manner that has negative consequences for material recovery. In addition, the imperfect internalisation of externalities from waste management such as leaching into groundwater, air pollution, etc. are not discussed. However, these issues - which are best described as policy failures - have been assessed in the literature (e.g. OECD, 2005 and OECD, 2004). Instead the report focuses on classic market failures in the recycling market itself. This includes issues such as information failures and market power. In addition, other market barriers which are not strictly market failures (such as price volatility...

Results Of Postal Survey Of Materials Suppliers

No re-use or recycling No re-use or recycling, too difficult No re-use or recycling No re-use or recycling - product Yes - packaging No re-use or recycling Re-use no. Manf. waste material recycled site waste accepted for recycling if arrangements made - also applies to packaging materials No re-use or recycling Re-use no. Manf. waste material recycled. Site waste accepted for recycling if arrangements made also applies to packaging materials No re-use or recycling

Welltargeted support for research and development

At present, the rubber recycling sector suffers from a number of technological impediments. Governments could support research and development to overcome these problem areas in the recycling industry. First, the currently limited market for secondary material applications could be expanded. For example, products could be designed in such a way that they could contain a higher content of recycled materials or could be used in different production processes. This is the case for example in the French iron and steel industry where the rubber of used tyres is used as a carbon reducing agent in electric arc furnaces. Approximately 15 of used tyres (about 60 000 tonnes) will thus be recovered in the near future by this industry (L 'Usine Nouvelle, 2003).

The market for secondary rubber

The configuration of the market for secondary rubber in each country depends on local economic and institutional conditions. Therefore, differences in recycling activities and waste management of used tyres occur naturally between countries. Moreover, market failures and distortions may be present in certain countries that reduce the efficiency with which markets for recyclable material operate, possibly leading to

Policy influences in the market for secondary rubber

Public policies can have both a positive and a negative impact on the economic and environmental performance of recycling and waste management of the used tyre sector. On the one hand, government strategies can be developed to correct market failures. On the other hand, if applied inappropriately, policies are sometimes counterproductive in making the waste stage of tyres more sustainable. This section aims to evaluate the existing tyre-related policies and suggest potential improvements in policy strategies.

Health Environmental Effects

Many metals are alloys, meaning they are mixtures of different metals or elements. Some of the metals associated with these alloys are generally not in a form that is dangerous. However, fumes released, for example by melting or welding of some metals may pose a health hazard. Metals should not be dumped in waterbodies as they oxidize and contaminate the water. Metals pose a physical hazard to both humans and wildlife. Recycling metals is the best option available to save raw materials, conserve energy and reduce landfill space.

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