Basic Concepts on the Recycling of Homogeneous and

Heterogeneous Plastics 63

Francesco Paolo La Mantia

Introduction 63

Main Problems in Plastics Recycling 64

Degradation 64 Influence of Structure and Morphology on the Behavior of Polymers 66

Molecular Weight 67

Branching 69

Polymer Blends 70

Conclusions 75

Acknowledgment 76

References 76

Compatibilization of Recycled Polyethyleneterephthalate/

Polypropylene Blends Using a Functionalized Rubber 77

Introduction 78

Experimental 78

Materials 78

Recycling 79

Structural Determinations 79

Rheological and Mechanical Properties 79

Results and Discussion 80

Structural Characterization 80

Rheological Properties and Processability 85

Mechanical Properties 88

Conclusions 91

References 91

Recycling of Post-consumer Plastic Containers for Liquids 93

Francesco Paolo La Mantia

Introduction 93

Experimental 95

Materials 95

Processing 97

Mechanical Properties 97

PVC Determination 97

Results and Discussion 98

Effect of Stabilizers and Lubricants 98

Fillers 102

Modifying Agents 105

Compatibilizers 107

Comparison Between Different Systems 109

Conclusions 114

Acknowledgment 116

References 116

A New Process for Recycling of Mixed Plastics Waste 117

B. Dubrulle D'Orhcel

Introduction 117

The Newplast-process Technology 118

Description of a Newplast-process Installation 120

Homomicronization Equipment 122

Newplast-process 124

Characterization of the Mixed Recycled Polymers 125

Conclusions 127

References 127

Grafted Copolymers and Their Use in Polymer Blends 129

B. Boutevin, Y. Pietrasanta, and Jean-Jacques Robin

1 Introduction 129

2 The Major Methods of Synthesis of Grafted Copolymers 131

  1. 1 The Combination Reaction 131
  2. 2 Macroradicals 132
  3. 2.1 Degradation of Polymers 132
  4. 2.1.1 Mechanical Degradation 132
  5. 2.1.2 Ultrasonic Degradation 133
  6. 2.2 Chemical Route 133
  7. 2.2.1 Oxidation-reduction 133
  8. 2.2.2 Diazotation 133
  9. 2.3 Irradiation 133
  10. 3 Transfer to Polymer 134
  11. 4 Macroinitiators 134
  12. 4.1 Oxidation 134
  13. 4.2 Ozonization 134
  14. 4.3 Preirradiation in the Presence of Air 135
  15. 5 Macromonomers 135
  16. 5.1 Radical Polymerization 135
  17. 5.2 Polyaddition Reaction 136

3 Synthesis of Grafted Copolymers by Ozonization of Polymer 136

  1. 1 Mechanism of Ozonization 136
  2. 2 Determination of the Polymer Activation 138
  3. 2.1 Colorimetric Titration 138
  4. 2.2 Selective Titration of Hydroperoxides in the Presence of Ferrous Salts 138
  5. 2.3 Iodometric Titration 139
  6. 3 Determination of the Dissociation Constant of Peroxy Functions 139
  7. 3.1 Determination of the Global Dissociation Constant Kd 139
  8. 3.2 Determination of Kd Constant and the Efficiency factor, f 140
  9. 3.3 Comparison Between the Dissociation Constants 141
  10. 4 The Grafting Methods 142
  11. 4.1 Grafting in Solution 142
  12. 4.2 Grafting in Bulk 142
  13. 5 Analysis of Products 142
  14. 6 Examples of Applications of Grafted Copolymers 146 3.6.1 Particular Case of Plastics Recycling 146

4 Polymer Blends and Alloys 147

  1. 1 PE/PVC Blends 148
  2. 2 PE/PS Blends 149
  3. 3 PS/PVC Blends 154
  4. 4 PS/PVC/PE Blends 155
  5. 5 PVDF/PS Blends 157
  6. 6 EVA/PS Blends 157

5 Monomaterial Waste Sources Application to Polymer-Bitumen Blends 157

  1. 1 Polyethylene Wastes 157
  2. 2 Crosslinked Ethylene-vinyl Acetate, EVA, Copolymer Wastes 162

6 Conclusions 163

References 163

Effect of Contamination on the Recycling of Polymers 167

J. Scheirs and G. Camino

Introduction 167

Contamination by Other Polymers 169

PVC in PET 169

HDPE in PET 169

PP in HDPE 170

PET in HDPE 170

Cellulose in HDPE 170

Multilayer Polymers 170

Contamination by Packaging Contents 171

Contamination by the Environment 173

Soil in Mulch Film 173

Moisture Contamination in PET 173

Contamination by Additives and Their Conversion Products 173

Chemical Modification of the Polymer 176

Contamination During Processin 177

Metal Contamination 177

Gel Contamination 178

Degraded Polymer Contamination 178

Detection of Contamination 178

Removal of Contamination 179

Removal of Contamination in Polyolefins 179

Removal of Contamination in PET 180

Removing Contamination in PVC 181

Removing Contamination in PC 181

Conclusions 181

References 182

UV Stability of Recycled Polymers 185

George Wypych

References 193

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