Liquefaction of PVC Mixed Plastics

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Thallada Bhaskar and Yusaku Sakata

1 Introduction

2 Experimental and Analytical Methods

  1. 1 Preparation of Iron and Calcium Composites
  2. 2 Experimental Procedure
  3. 3 Analysis procedure
  4. 4 HCl Adsorption Capacity

3 Fundamental Studies on the Decomposition of PVC

  1. 1 Product Distribution and Mechanism of PVC Decomposition
  2. 2 Degradation of PVC - Polymer Mixtures

4 Liquefaction with Commingled Plastics and Dechlorination . .

  1. 1 Pyrolysis of PE, PP or PS with PVC
  2. 2 Thermal Degradation of PP/PVC by Solid Acid Catalysts and Dechlorination with Iron Oxides
  3. 3 Thermal Degradation of PE Mixed with PET
  4. 4 Laboratory Evaluation of Various Carbon Composites as HCl Sorbents
  5. 5 Liquefaction of PVC Mixed Plastics and Dechlorination with Ca-C
  6. 6 Liquefaction of PP/PE/PS/PVC with HIPS-Br and Dehalogenation with Ca-C
  7. 7 Liquefaction of Real Municipal Waste Plastics

5 Pilot Plant Scale Studies for the Liquefaction of PVC Mixed Plastics

Xiii

462 464

469 471

476 480 482 488 490

493 496 496

498 498

502 502

518 521

6 Conclusions 525

References 525

19 Liquid Fuel from Plastic Wastes Using Extrusion-Rotary Kiln Reactors 531

Sam Behzadi and Mohammed Farid

1 Introduction 531

2 Pyrolysis 532

2.1 Industrial-scale Pyrolysis Processes 533

References 547

20 Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis of Polymers Containing Heteroatoms 549

Andreas Hornung and Helmut Seifert

1 Introduction 549

2 Technical Variations 549

  1. 1 Conrad Process 550
  2. 2 Double Rotary Kiln Pyrolysis 550
  3. 3 Pyrolysis of Tires: Faulkner System 550
  4. 4 VTA Pyrolysis: A Rotary Kiln for the Treatment of Petrochemical Residues and Hydrocarbon Residues 551

3 State of the Art of Rotary Kiln Technology 551

3.1 Haloclean Gas-tight Rotary Kiln 552

4 Rotary Kiln Principles 553

5 Treatment of Thermoplastics: PVC 553

6 Pyrolysis of Mono Fractions: Polymethylmethacrylate

PMMA 556

7 Treatment of Shredder Light Fractions/Shredder Residues . . . 557

8 Treatment of Electronic Scrap 557

  1. 1 The European Dimension 558
  2. 2 The Pyrocom Rotary Kiln 558
  3. 3 The Haloclean Rotary Kiln Process 559

9 Dehalogenation of Pyrolysis Oils 562

References 564

21 Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastic Wastes 569

C. Ludlow-Palafox and H.A. Chase

1 Introduction 569

2 Background 570

  1. 1 Microwave Heating 570
  2. 2 Microwave Pyrolysis 572

3 Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastics in the Scientific Literature . . 575

  1. 1 Microwave Pyrolysis Equipment 575
  2. 2 Results from the Microwave Pyrolysis of Plastics 577
  3. 3 Microwave Effect in Microwave Pyrolysis 581

4 Microwave Pyrolysis in the Commercial Literature 582

  1. 1 Patents History and Comparison with Scientific Literature 582
  2. 2 Companies 585

5 Conclusions 586

References 587

22 Continuous Thermal Process for Cracking Polyolefin Wastes to Produce Hydrocarbons 595

Jean Dispons

1 Background 595

2 Introduction 596

3 The Two Principal Phases of Polyolefin Waste Cracking 597

4 Thermal Valorization of Polyolefin Wastes 598

5 Continuous Feeding of the Cracking Reactors 598

6 Heating Methods 599

23 Waste Plastic Pyrolysis in Free-Fall Reactors 605

Ali Y. Bilgesü, M. CCetin Kogak, and Ali Karaduman

1 Pyrolysis 605

2 Previous Pyrolysis Work 605

3 Design Aspects of FFR to be Used in Pyrolysis 609

4 A Free-Fall Reactor System for Flash Pyrolysis 610

  1. 1 Set-up 610
  2. 2 Experimental Procedure 611

5 Plastic Waste Recycling 612

6 Results from Ateklab Free-Fall Reactor 613

  1. 1 LDPE Results 613
  2. 1 Polystyrene Results 617

References 621

V MONOMER RECOVERY 625

24 Monomer Recovery of Plastic Waste in a Fluidized Bed Process . 627

Walter Kaminsky

1 Introduction 627

2 Fluidized-bed Process 628

3 Pyrolysis of PMMA 629

  1. 1 Pure PMMA 629
  2. 2 Filled PMMA 631

4 Pyrolysis of Polystyrene 635

5 Pyrolysis of PTFE 635

6 Conclusions 638

References 638

25 Feedstock Recycling of PET 641

Toshiaki Yoshioka and Guido Grause

1 Introduction 641

2 Physical Recycling (Mechanical Recycling) 643

3 Solvolysis (Chemolysis) 643

  1. 1 Glycolysis 644
  2. 2 Methanolysis 644
  3. 3 Hydrolysis 647
  4. 4 Other Processes 649

4 Pyrolysis and Other Hot Processes 649

  1. 1 Decomposition Mechanism of PET 650
  2. 2 Pyrolysis Processes 653

References 659

VI ASIAN DEVELOPMENTS 663

26 The Liquefaction of Plastic Containers and Packaging in Japan 665

A. Okuwaki, T. Yoshioka, M. Asai, H. Tachibana, K. Wakai, K. Tada

1 Introduction 665

  1. 1 Brief History of Plastics Liquefaction in Japan 665
  2. 2 The Law for Promotion of Sorted Collection and

Recycling of Containers and Packaging 666

1.3 Feedstock Recycling of Plastic Containers and

Packaging 667

References 670

2 Niigata Waste Plastic Liquefaction Process 670

  1. 1 Plant Outline 670
  2. 2 Process Description 671
  3. 3 Quality of Waste Plastics 673
  4. 4 Properties of Outputs 673
  5. 5 Material Balance and Consumption Figures 675
  6. 6 Heat Balance 675
  7. 7 Application of the Outputs 676
  8. 8 Environmental Measurement 678

References 678

3 Sapporo Waste Plastics Liquefaction Process 678

  1. 1 Plant Outline 678
  2. 2 Process Description 680
  3. 3 Quality of Waste Plastics 682
  4. 4 Properties of Outputs 684
  5. 5 Material Balance and Consumption Figures 687
  6. 6 Heat Balance 688
  7. 7 Application of the Outputs 691
  8. 8 Environmental Aspects 692
  9. 9 Characteristics of the Plant 693

References 695

4 Mikasa Waste Plastic Liquefaction Plant 695

  1. 1 Plant Outline 695
  2. 2 Process Description 695
  3. 3 Quality and Application of Reclaimed Oil 698
  4. 4 Material Balance 698
  5. 5 High Energy Collection 700
  6. 6 Characteristics of the Plant 700
  7. 7 Application of the System 702

References 702

5 The Scope of Liquefaction in Japan 702

  1. 1 Present Status of Feedstock Recycling 702
  2. 2 Scope for Liquefaction 706

References 708

27 Process and Equipment for Conversions of Waste Plastics into

Fuels 709

Alka Zadgaonkar

1 Introduction 709

2 Pyrolysis 709

  1. 1 Definition 709
  2. 2 Plastics Suitable for Pyrolysis 710

3 Pyrolysis: Mode of Operation and Apparatus 710

  1. 1 Batch Pyrolysis 710
  2. 2 Types of Pyrolyzers 711

4 Pyrolysis: Thermal Cracking/Noncatalytic Cracking 712

  1. 1 Operation 712
  2. 2 Process Mechanism 713
  3. 3 Degradation of Polymers 713

5 Pyrolysis Catalyst 715

  1. 1 Role and Effect of Catalyst 715
  2. 2 Properties of Catalyst 716

6 Pyrolysis: Output Characteristics 719

  1. 1 Effect of Temperature on Pyrolysis Products 719
  2. 2 By-products of Pyrolysis 719

7 Pyrolysis of Heteroatom Polymers 720

  1. 1 Pyrolysis of PVC 720
  2. 2 Pyrolysis of ABS 721

8 Refinement of Pyrolysis Output Products 721

  1. 1 Removal of Unsaturation and Olefinic Products 721
  2. 2 Various Examples of Pyrolysis 722
  3. 3 Comparison of Pyrolysis of PE and PP 724

9 Recently Developed Innovative Technologies 724

  1. 1 Thermofuel of Waste Plastic by Ozmotech 724
  2. 2 Conversion of Waste Plastics to Fuels: Zadgaonkar's

Process 724

References 728

28 Converting Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel by Pyrolysis:

Developments in China 729

Yuan Xingzhong

1 Progress in Converting Waste Plastics into Liquid Fuel by

Pyrolysis 729

2 Theory of Plastics Pyrolysis 730

  1. 1 Mass Balance for the Pyrolysis Process 730
  2. 2 Energy Balance for the Pyrolysis Process 732
  3. 3 Mechanism of Plastics Pyrolysis 734
  4. 4 Methods for Plastics Pyrolysis 735

3 Process of Plastics Pyrolysis 738

  1. 1 Veba Process 738
  2. 2 BP Process 738
  3. 3 Fuji Process 741
  4. 4 BASF Process 741
  5. 5 Hamburg University Process 741
  6. 6 Hunan University Process 742
  7. 7 United Carbon Process 743
  8. 8 Likun Process 743
  9. 9 Other Processes 744

4 Main Factors in Plastics Pyrolysis 744

  1. 1 Temperature 744
  2. 2 Catalyst 746

5 Pyrolysis of PVC 747

6 Catalytic Reforming of Cracked Gas 748

References 750

Index 757

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