Markets and logistics

Home Based Recycling Business

Make Money in the Recycling Business

Get Instant Access

Much work is required on the markets and logistics of recycling and reusing individual waste materials or groups of materials. In Section 2, the materials were categorised into three groups (See also Section 7.1).

Group 1 Materials

These are mainly wastes arising from demolition and effort should be concentrated on crushed concrete, brick and masonry. This is because large volumes of these materials are potentially available so that a significant impact on the provision of building materials, a reduction in volumes of landfilled wastes, and the conservation of primary resources can be made by recycling them. In comparison, a lower priority should be given to the reuse or recycling of tiles and clay pipes, since the quantity arising is so low. However, beneficial reuse or recycling, no matter how small-scale, should not be discouraged.

Effort should also be made to ensure high quality recycling of asphalt (i.e. road pavement) since the quantities arising are significant. Uncontaminated soils pose little environmental hazard, are readily reused and require no further study. Contaminated soil is a material which merits further attention with regard to volumes, treatment technology and potential for beneficial reuse (CIRIA, 1994). Continued reuse of secondary aggregates (e.g. pfa, china clay sand etc) should be encouraged since the quantities of these materials are so large.

Group 2 Materials

No further work or effort is required to encourage the recycling of metals. There exists a strong ferrous scrap metal market and the less common metals, such as aluminium, copper and lead, have scrap values that ensure that they are usually recovered. Further study and more effort is required to aid recovery and reuse/recycling of timber. Not only are the quantities arising high but the material has numerous secondary uses and applications. Wood is considered a deleterious contaminant of demolition debris and construction wastes, and also is undesirable in landfill since it decomposes creating void spaces. The quantity of glass arising on construction and demolition sites is unknown, thus further investigation into its recycling/reuse is required. The issue of packaging materials currently appears to be adequately considered by the Producer Responsibility Group. There have been notable initiatives by producers to recycle paper, cardboard and plastic packaging.

Waste oils present a high environmental risk as well as a fire risk, but the quantities arising from construction/demolition are unknown. An effort should be made to firstly, reduce the wastage of oils and secondly, recycle them. It is illegal to dispose of used oil via public drainage systems. There is scope for further investigations to determine the quantity of waste oil arisings from demolition and construction sites.

Group 3 Materials

These are materials which are not readily recycled and have particular disposal issues. Effort should be made to minimise these wastes and to ensure their proper disposal. Those materials which are environmentally damaging, of high value or high bulk should be identified as high priority for implementing waste minimisation programmes. Further research into each of these materials is required, especially with regard to the logistics and cost-effectiveness of such a programme.

During the research the use of certain materials or products should be traced, covering the following:

  • how much used
  • quantities and sizes available
  • sources
  • just in time versus bulk delivery
  • storage
  • cutting and processing on site
  • offcuts
  • how does waste arise - mixed or separate
  • does waste arise at many locations and stages?
  • when it reappears as waste, is it in another form?
  • can it be readily salvaged?
  • can it be reused (same or lower grade)?
  • can it be recycled/feedstock for same or other material?
  • are specifications sufficiently advanced in UK and/or other countries to enable reuse ?
  • is application constrained by lack of performance data?
  • are site or lab trials needed?
  • is the material applied successfully in other countries?
  • volumes and economics.

7.4 STAGE 2

It is presently envisaged that Stage 2 will involve the production of a practical guide for site-related personnel on current best practice, a series of on-site waste reviews and a degree of economic modelling. It may also require an initial questionnaire/survey to ascertain the level of knowledge and awareness within the construction industry to date.

Production of guidance document:

  • target on-site personnel e.g. site managers, labourers
  • target off-site personnel e.g. clients, designers, architects, suppliers
  • summary of relevant legislation
  • clear, concise guidance
  • material specific.

Economic assessment

  • on-site or off-site based options
  • cost-benefit analysis
  • sensitivity analysis
  • market assessment.

On-site waste reviews

  • waste origins
  • waste characteristics
  • dominant waste streams
  • site storage/collection facilities
  • disposal arrangement.

Questionnaire/Survey

  • level and knowledge of waste minimisation techniques
  • recycling technology (on or off-site)
  • quantitatively significant recycled materials
  • financial costs and revenues.

Site Trials (Stage 2 or 3)

  • selection criteria and objectives
  • day-to-day monitoring
  • personnel interviews
  • analysis and interpretation.

References

AEA HARWELL (1990) Review of current practices used in the recycling of demolition wastes (unpublished)

ALLWINKLE, S.J. and STAMBRIDGE, D.W. (1994) An analysis of the barriers to the reuse and recycling of building materials. In: Proceedings of CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment, Building Research Establishment (Garston)

ARMSTRONG, E.L. (1972) Recycling of land resources. Public Works and Society, Joint Conference ASCE

ATKINSON, C., COLLINS, R.J. and WEST, J. (1994) Use of waste materials in building products. In: Proceedings of CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment, Building Research Establishment (Garston)

BACMI (1991) The occurrence and utilisation of mineral and construction wastes: A BACMI response to the report by Arup Economics commissioned by DoE, BACMI (London)

BARTON, J.R. (1988) Mechanical sorting technology for municipal solid waste reclamation. In: Waste Management in the UK, Harwell Waste Management Symposium, Environmental Safety Centre (Harwell)

BERGESON, K.L. (ed). (1992) Utilization of waste materials in civil engineering construction. Proceedings of Sessions American Society of Civil Engineers (New York)

BIFFA WASTE SERVICES (Undated) Waste: Somebody else's problem? Our choices and responsibilities. An industry report by Biffa Waste Services. For a copy of this report please contact Simon Bruce on 0494 556504

BIFFA WASTE SERVICES (1994) Waste: A Game of Snakes and Ladders? A benchmarking report on waste and business strategy. A second industry report by Biffa Waste Services. For a copy of this report please contact Simon Bruce on 0494 556504

BLUE CIRCLE (1992) Internal data sheet

BRITISH GEOLOGICAL SURVEY (1992) United Kingdom Minerals Yearbook 1991. British Geological Survey (Kenilworth)

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1985) Guide to Use of Industrial By-Products and Waste Materials in Building and Civil Engineering BS 6543

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1985) cement BS 6588

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1992) areas BS 594 Parts 1 and 2

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1985) pulverisedfuel ash as a pozzolana BS 6610

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1983) aggregate for use in construction BS 1047

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1988) areas BS 4987 Parts 1 and 2

Specification for Portland pulverisedfuel ash Hot rolled asphalt for roads and other paved Specification for pozzolanic cement with Specification for air-cooled blastfurnance slag Coated macadam for roads and other paved

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1982) Specification for pulverised fuel ash for use as a cementitious component of structural concrete BS 3892 Part 1

BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION (1984) Specification for pulverised fuel ash for use in grouting andfor miscellaneous uses in concrete BS 3892 Part 2

BRYAN, J. (1992) Vitrification. Its role in the treatment of hazardous waste. 5th International Symposium on Operating European Hazardous Waste Management Facilities (Odense, Denmark)

BRE (1992) Digest 276 - Hardcore

BRE (1993) Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials Vol:. An overview. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

BRE (1992) Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials. Vol 2: Technical data and results of surveys. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

BRE (1994) Efficient use of aggregates and bulk construction materials: the role of specifications. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

BURNS, J. (1978) The use of waste and low-grade materials in road construction -6. Spent Oil Shale. TRRL. Report 818. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne).

CIEC Report. Waste and recycling. In: Construction and the Environment pp. 17-21 and 44-45

CIRIA (1994) RP 461 Draft Report. Environmental impact of materials. Volumes B-F: Technical reviews. (Draft for discussion)

CIRIA (1994) Remedial treatment for contaminated land Volumes 1-12. CIRIA SP101-112

COLAS RECYCLING (Undated) Saving Tomorrow's Resources Today (package)

COLEMAN, E.H. and NIXON, P.J. (1974) A survey of possible sources in Wales of raw materials for the manufacture of a lightweight expanded slate aggregate. BRE Current Paper CP 78/74. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

COLLINS, R.J. (1994a) Conservation and recycling of aggregates and bulk construction materials in the UK. In: "Concrete across Borders " International Concrete Conference (Odense, Denmark)

COLLINS, R.J. (1994b) The use of recycled aggregates in concrete. Building Research Establishment Information Paper IP 5/94

COLLINS, R.J. and ATKINSON, C.J. (1994) Specifications and the use of wastes in construction in the United Kingdom. In: International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

COLLINS, R.J. (1992) Recycling of demolition materials In: Conference on "Decommissioning, decontamination and demolition " IBC (London)

COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES (1994) Priority Waste Stream: Construction and Demolition Wastes. Strategy Document. First Draft

COMMITTEE FOR THE ADAPTATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRESS OF COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 91/156/EEC (1992) Working document on the European Waste Catalogue. Draft No 3. pp. 1-25

CONFEDERATION OF BRITISH INDUSTRIES (Undated) Minerals Industry Environment Charter (CBI leaflet)

CONFEDERATION OF BRITISH INDUSTRIES (1993) Reducing the burden of waste. Guidelines for Business (CBI Booklet)

COUNTY SURVEYORS' SOCIETY (1994) Use of Recycling for Road Pavement Construction and Maintenance. County Surveyors' Society Engineering Committee Soils and Materials Design and Specification Group

CRITTENDEN, B.D. and KOLACZKOWSKI, S.T. (1992) Waste Minimisation Guide for the Institute of Chemical Engineers with the support of the Department of the Environment

CROCKETT, R.N. (1975) Slate - Mineral Dossier No 12, Mineral Resources Consultative Committee. HMSO (London)

de VRIES, P. (1993) Concrete recycled. Crushed concrete as aggregate. Concrete. May/June

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1994a) Sustainable Development. The UK Strategy. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1994b) Minerals Planning Guidance: Guidelines for Aggregates Provision in England (MPG 6)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT Research Commissioned on the Environmental Effects of Dust from Surface Mineral Workings. Press Office

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (CONSTRUCTION SPONSORSHIP DIVISION) (1993) Use of Waste Materials as Construction Aggregates. Minerals Division Policy Initiatives/Research

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (MINERALS DIVISION) and ECOTEC RESEARCHING AND CONSULTING LTD. (1993) Aggregates in construction - current practice, scope for substitution and intensity of use

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1993a) Recycling of Demolition and Construction Wastes in the UK. PECD 7/1/434 (contents and introduction only)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1993b) Landfill Pricing: Correcting Possible Market Distortions. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1993c) The Definition of Waste. Guidance Note

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1992) Waste Management Paper No. 1, A review of options. A memorandum providing guidance on the options available for waste treatment and disposal. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1991a) Waste Management: The Duty of Care: A Code of Practice. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (1991b) Waste Management Paper No. 28. Recycling. A memorandum providing guidance to local authorities on recycling. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT (ENERGY EFFICIENCY OFFICE) (1985-1987) General Information. Report 17. The Performance of Roads Reconstructed by Cold on-site

Recycling

DEPARTMENT OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY Cutting your losses, a business guide to waste minimisation. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT and SWK(PE) (1993) Assessment of Industrial By-Products for Use in Roadbases. Stage 1 Report

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT (1976) Specification for Road and Bridge Works, Fifth Edition. HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT (1986) Specification for Highway Works, Sixth Edition HMSO (London)

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT (1992) Manual of Contract Documents for Highway Works, Volume 1. Specification for Highway Works, Seventh Edition. HMSO (London)

DESMYTER, J., LAETHAM, B„ SIMONS, B„ VAN DESSEL, J., and VYNCKE J (1994) Towards sustainabihty with construction and demolition waste in Belgium? In- Environmental nFSE" FLtAN^AN, R and MARSH, L. (1994) Using auto-ID to enable efficient recycling ofbuildmgmatenals. In: First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment Buildmg Research Establishment (Garston)

FOKLENBERG, J. (1994) Use of crushed tile and concrete as filling in pipe trenches In-Environmental Aspects of Construction with Waste Materials, edited by J.JJ.M Goumans H A van derSloot and Th.G.Aalbers, Elsevier ' M A'

FRANKLIN, R.E., GIBBS, W. and SHERWOOD, P.T. (1982) The use of pulverised fuel ash in

Z:^^ f k 7 " ^^ StUd'eS- ^^ Supplementary Report SR 736. Tr^nZ Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne) p u

GILL A.D WOODSIDE, A.R. and WOODWARD, W.D.H. (1994) A critical appraisal of recycling the UK roads. In: Why recycle? edited by Rainbow. Balkema (RotterdZ)

(1992) Recycling of concrete and other material:. In: Proceedings of the 2nd SPRINT workshop on Alternative materials in road construction' (Rotterdam)

GOULDEN, E. (1992) Slate waste aggregate for unbound pavement layers. MSc Thesis Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nottingham

GOUMANS, J.J.J.M., van der SLOOT H.A. and AALBERS Th.G. (eds.) (1991) Waste Materials * m Construction Proceedings of the International Conference on EnvironmentalIm^T*

O Construction with Waste Materials. Studies in Environmental Science Vol. 48

^ ™te( Tn9 P MUnidPaI %ft COnstruCtion 351138 ^ a^gate substitute in asphaltic

CD concrete In. Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of

H Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht) 7

ThI^EZ^XON'^(r979) UZ °fWaSte ^^ m the industry. Analysis of the RILEM Symposium by Correspondence. Building Research Establishment R2/79

o GUTT, W NIXON, P.H., SMITH, M.A., HARRISON, W.H. and RUSSELL, A.D (1974) A

P survey of the location, disposal and prospective use of major industrial by-products and waste materials. BRE Current Paper CP 19/74. Building Research EstablishmenUGarstonT

  • J^ff ^lf Mi r' cR °985) ThS "" ash in lean concrete.
  • T^andRoadResearch
  • HARTLEN(1991) Utilisation of incinerator bottom ash. In: Proceedings of the International

Q Conference on the Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

  • HENDRIKS Ch F. and HENDRICHSON, A. Recycling of Demolition Waste. Summary of a
  • research project by the Centre for Research and Contract Standardisation in Civil and iSfflc
  • ST?1""!8" Netherlands Centre fOT Civil Engineering Research and Codes - The
  • Netherlands
  • 994) Certification system for aggregates produced from building waste and h!Tttm r u A EnvironmentalA^ts of Construction with Waste Material, edited by J.JJ.M. Goumans, H.A. van der Sloot and Th. G. Aalbers. Elsevier

HIGGINS, T.E. (1989) Hazardous waste minimisation handbook. Leavis Publishers Inc. (USA) £ (London) "0) mS COmm°n Inheritance: Britain's Environmental Strategy, Cm 1200, HMSO

cq CIRIA Special Publication 122

fi CD

HOPTON, N., PIKE, D.C., SYM, R. (1993) A proposal for a variability study on recycled aggregates from reclaimed concrete for use in concrete. Research Report for the Building Research Establishment by Green Land Reclamation Ltd

HOPTON, N. and PIKE, D.C. (1993) Recycled concrete for use as concreting aggregate. Research Report for the Building Research Establishment by Green Land Reclamation Ltd

HOSKING, J.R. (1967) Roadstone tests on present day blastfurnace slag. TRRL Report LR96 Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne)

HOWARD HUMPHREYS AND PARTNERS (1994) Managing demolition and construction wastes. Report of the study on the recycling of construction and demolition wastes in the UK. HMSO (London)

ISLES, M.K. (1992) Recycling - the "greening" of blacktop. Highways and Transportation (June), pp. 26-29

KASAI, Y. (ed). (1988) Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry. Volume 1. Demolition methods and practice. Proceedings of the 2nd International RILEM Symposium Chapman and Hall (New York and London)

KASAI, Y. (ed). (1988) Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry. Volume 2. Reuse of demolition waste. Proceedings of the 2nd International RILEM Symposium Chapman and Hall (New York and London)

KIBERT, C.J. (1993) Construction materials from recycled polymers Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers Struct. & Bldgs. Vol. 99 pp. 455-464

KROL, A. (1991) Production of lightweight aggregate from wastes: The Neutralysis Process. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

LAURITZEN, E.K. (1994) Environmental management in large construction projects. In: Environmental Aspects of Construction with Waste Materials, edited by J.J.J.M. Goumans, H.A. van der Sloot and Th. G. Aalbers. Elsevier

LAURITZEN, E.K. (ed). (1993) Demolition and reuse of concrete and masonry. Proceedings of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium. E & FN Spon (London)

LAWSON, W.R. (1994) Design for deconstruction. In: CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

LAWSON, E.M. and NIXON, P.J. (1978) A survey of the locations, disposal and prospective uses of the major industrial by-products and waste materials in Scotland. BRE Current Paper CP 50/78. Building Research Establishment, (Garston)

LEA, F.M. (1970) The chemistry of cement and concrete. Edward Arnold (London), 3rd edition

LEE, A.R. (1974) Blastfurnace and Steel Slag. Edward Arnold (London)

LINDSAY, J. (1974) A History of the North Wales Slate Industry. David N. Charles (Newton Abbott)

LINDSELL, P and MULHERON, M. (1985) Recycling of demolition debris. Institute of Demolition Engineers, Virginia Water.

LINDSELL, P. (1990) Recycling of construction materials. Joint Survey by Institute of Demolition Engineers and National Federation of Demolition Contractors. IDE, Virginia Water.

LINDSELL, P. (1992) Recycled aggregates for new concrete. Institute of Concrete Technology

LWRA (1994) A Prospect for Change. A Consultation Draft of a Waste Disposal Plan for Greater London

MANK(1991) Incineration slag in road construction. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

MARSAY, A. (1994) Alternative aggregate supply sources: the case for using recycled mineral and construction wastes. In: Why Recycle? edited by Rainbow. Balkema (Rotterdam)

MARSDEN, A. (1991) Recycling: UK Challenge and European Achievement. Municipal Engineer Vol.8 (No.4), pp. 157-162

MULHERON, M. (1986) A preliminary study of recycled aggregates. Institute of Demolition Engineers, Virginia Water

MULHERON, M. (1991) Recycled demolition waste. Unbound aggregates in construction (UNBAC) University of Nottingham

MULHERON, M. and O'MAHONY, M. (1987) Recycled Aggregates: Properties and Performance. Institution of Demolition Engineers

NATIONAL COAL BOARD (1993) Cement Bound Minestone - Users guide for pavement construction. NCB Minestone Executive (Whitburn)

NICOLAI et al (1993) Development of Integrated Waste Management Strategies for Demolition Waste. In: Proceeedings of the 3rd International RILEM Symposium, pp.473-474

NIXON, P.J. (1978) Floor heave in buildings due to the use of pyritic shales as fill material. In: Chemistry and Industry, 4 March, pp. 160-164

O'MAHONY, M. (1990) Recycling of materials in civil engineering. Ph.D Thesis, University of Oxford

O'MAHONY, M. (1991) Recycling of Construction Waste. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) (1977) Use of waste materials and by-products in road construction. (Paris)

Packaging and Packaging Waste (HL Paper 188.) HMSO (London)

PARKES, E.M. and PROCTER, P.J. (1992) Recycling-a practical 10%. ICE Proceedings, Municipal Engineer Vol.93 pp. 137-142

POTTER, J.F., SHERWOOD, P.T. and O'CONNOR, M.G.D. (1985) The use of pulverised fuel ash in lean concrete. Part 3 - Field Studies. TRRL Supplementary Report SR 842. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne)

ROE, P.G. The use of waste and low grade materials in construction: 4 Incinerated Refuse TRRL Laboratory Report 728. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne)

RUCH, M., SCHULTMANN, F. and RENTZ, O. (1994) A case study of integrated dismantling and recycling planning for residential buildings. In: CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

SALOMONSSON, G.D. and MACSPORRAN, C. (1994) Recycling of materials in building construction. In: CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

SCHMIDT. (1991) The use of industrial by-products with hydraulic binders: Refuse incineration ashes as an example. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

SERPLAN (1988) Waste Recycling: Regional Perspective Report by the Waste Disposal Working Group

SEWRAC (1994) Waste disposal in the South East Region: Results of the 1993 Waste Monitoring Survey

SHAH, S.P (ed). (1988) New horizons in construction materials. American Society of Civil Engineers

SHERWOOD, P.T. (Unpublished) The use of waste materials and by-products in road construction. A state of the art review

SHERWOOD, P.T. (1975) The use of waste and low grade materials in road construction: 2 Colliery Shale TRRL Report LR649. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne)

SHERWOOD, P.T. and COLLINS, R.J. (1993) Use of waste and recycled materials as aggregates: standards and specifications. Draft Building Research Establishment Report

SIMMONS, B.A. (1991) PIRA Research Proposal: Uses of recycled plastics in packaging/materials

SIMMONS, B.A. (1992) PIRA Research Report. Feasibility Study: Development of a code of practice for the plastics recycling industry

SKOYLES, E.R. and SKOYLES, J.R. (1987) Waste Prevention on Site. Mitchell's Professional Library

SLAG REDUCTION COMPANY A report on the electric arc furnace steel slag for road construction

SLEEMAN, W. (1990) Environmental effect of the utilisation of coal mining wastes. In: Third International Symposium on Reclamation, Treatment and Utilisation of Coal Mining Wastes (Glasgow)

STANHOPE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GROUP (1993) Setting standards in the construction industry. The Stanhope approach

STANHOPE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GROUP (1993) Design: An assessment of small power leads for commercial office buildings Stanhope Position Paper

STANHOPE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GROUP (1992) Design: An assessment of the imposed leading needs for current commercial office buildings in Great Britain. Stanhope Position Paper

STANHOPE PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT GROUP (1993) Design: An assessment of occupation density levels in commercial office buildings. Stanhope Position Paper.

SWEERE, G.T.H. (1991) Reuse of demolition waste in road construction. In: Proceedings IRF Regional Conference for Europe "Roads between East and West Europe after 1992 ", Vol.2 pp. 289-296 (Beograd, Yugoslavia)

TANFIELD, D.A. (1978) The use of cement-stabilised colliery spoils in pavement construction In: International Conference of the use of by-products and waste in civil engineering (Paris)

THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE (1983) Manual Soils No. 21. Asphalt Hot-Mix Recycling

THE ASPHALT INSTITUTE (1982) Manual Soils No 21. Asphalt Cold-Mix Recycling

TRL. (1992) Alternative materials in road construction. Final report. In: Proceedings of the Second SPRINT workshop on 'Alternative materials in road construction. (Rotterdam)

TUBEY, I,W. (1978) The use of waste and low-grade materials inroad construction-5. China clay sand. TRRL Report 819. Transport and Road Research Laboratory (Crowthorne)

TUBEY, I.W. and WEBSTER, D.C. (1978) Effects of mica on the roadmaking properties of materials. TRRL Supplementary Report 408. Transport and Road Research Laboratory, (Crowthorne)

US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (1988) Waste minimisation opportunity assessment manual US EPA Hazardous Waste Engineering Research Laboratory, Office & Research and Development, Cincinnati, Ohio

VAQUIER (1991) The combined use of incinerated household rubbish ash and silicoaluminous ash in concrete. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Environmental Implications of Waste Materials in Construction (Maastricht)

VERHASSELT, A. and CHOQUET, F. (1989) Steel slags as unbound aggregate in road construction: Problems and recommendations. In: Unbound Aggregates in Roads, edited by Jones and Dawson, pp. 204-209. Butterworths (London)

WAINWRIGHT, P.J. (1984) Review of methods of utilisation of incinerator residues as a construction material. In: Proc. of low cost and energy saving construction materials (Brazil)

WAINWRIGHT, P.J. (1991) Production and properties of sintered incinerator residues as aggregate for concrete. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Environmental Implications of Construction with Waste Materials (Maastricht)

WAINWRIGHT, P.J. The use of recycled concrete as aggregate for new concrete

WAINWRIGHT, P.J. (1981) Artificial aggregate from domestic refuse concrete

WALTER, E. (1976) Practical refuse recycling. In: J. Em. Eng. Div. ASCE Vol.102 pp. 139-148

WASCON (1991) International Conference on Environmental Implications of Construction with waste materials

WHITBREAD, M., MARSEY, A. and TUNNELL, C. (1991) Occurrence and utilisation of mineral and construction wastes. Report for the Department of the Environment. HMSO (London)

WOOLEY, G.R. (1994) State of the art report. Use of waste materials in construction-technological development. In: Environmental Aspects of Construction and Waste Materials edited by J.J.J.M. Goumans, H.A. van der Sloot and Th. G. Aalbers. Elsevier

YASHIRO, T. (1994) Survey on demolishing procedure of Japanese residential buildings. In: CIB First International Conference: Buildings and the Environment. Building Research Establishment (Garston)

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Trash To Cash

Trash To Cash

This book will surely change your life due to the fact that after reading this book and following through with the steps that are laid out for you in a clear and concise form you will be earning as much as several thousand extra dollars a month,  as you can see by the cover of the book we will be discussing how you can make cash for what is considered trash by many people, these are items that have value to many people that can be sold and help people who need these items most.

Get My Free Ebook


Responses

  • Pauli Manninen
    Why waste oil are used in construction of buildings?
    9 years ago

Post a comment