France

In France, the Government is still seeking to identify how the market is operating and no specific steps have been taken nationally to encourage the industry (Howard Humphreys, 1994). France is in a somewhat similar situation to Great Britain in that the availability of primary material is good and hence there is little direct pressure to recycle reuse demolition and construction wastes. However, recycled material is used almost exclusively in sub-base for road construction and the French...

AA Denmark

Denmark has introduced a landfill tax and the types of waste allowed to be disposed of to landfill q are severely restricted. This, in association with a reduction in the number of available landfills, o has resulted in much of the arisings being directed towards reuse recycling. m Table A.2.1 indicates the amount of construction and demolition waste which arose in Denmark in 1989. Table A.2.2 summarises the Government recycling targets set by waste source. The Government has decided to target...

Abbreviations

British Aggregate Construction Materials Industries Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method National Federation of Demolition Contractors Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Producer Responsibility Industry Group International Union of Testing and Research Laboratories South East Waste Regulation Advisory Committee International Conference on Environmental Implicationsof Construction

Authors

The report was produced under contract to CIRIA by a consortium led by Scott Wilson Kirkpatrick (SWK) and including Aspinwall & Company and COWIConsult (Denmark). The principal contributors to the study were Peter Guthrie (SWK), Jacqui Cooper (SWK), Vip Patel (Aspinwall & Company), Hugh Mallett (Aspinwall & Company), Jens Jakobsen (COWIConsult), Ric Elliot (SWK Pavement Engineering), Eric Warburton (SWK), and Stuart Coventry (SWK). The study team also included Dr Rod Collins (BRE) and...

Cd The EU ecolabelling scheme

Architects and designers are increasingly demanding information about the environmental impacts of the products they specify. The EU eco-labelling scheme has been developed for consumer w goods, but is also applicable to building products. The EU regulation on eco-labelling is designed to promote the use, design and production of products which have a reduced environmental impact > at all stages of their life cycle. The application of the EU regulation on eco-labelling to building products is...

Concluding Remarks

Construction and demolition wastes are highly variable in nature, especially in terms of material type and quantity. In listing the main materials to be found within the construction and demolition waste streams, these can be categorised into three groups on the basis of their potential for reuse in construction their potential for recycling off site their lack of potential for recycling reuse and thus the paramount need for waste minimisation. In this section the various waste materials are...

Consultees

CIRIA is also grateful to the following additional consult es who provided advice or information during the course of the study Department of the Environment Building Research Establishment Save Waste and Prosper Ltd Biffa Waste Services Institution of Demolition Engineers Chartered Institute of Building Confederation of British Industry Association of County Councils Colas Ltd Construction Industry Environmental Forum

Contents

1.3 Tonnages of Construction and Demolition Wastes Arising in the UK 2 1.5 Future Aggregate Requirements and Supply 5 1.6 Government Policy and Minerals Planning 5 1.7 Scope for Substituting Secondary Materials 5 1.8 Current Recycling Reuse Rates 6 tf 1.9 The Definition of Waste 7 U 110 EU Waste Management Policy 8 1.10.1 Waste management strategy of the European Union 8 1.10.2 EU project on demolition and building wastes 8 1.12.1 Town and Country Planning Acts 9 1.12.2 Environmental Protection...

Current Attitudes And Potential For Change

There is generally a low level of awareness as to how significantly initial design can promote g waste minimisation. Although the problems are recognised by Skoyles (1987) there has been little translation into action within the construction industry itself. Attitudes are largely governed by financial viability. If environmental gain can be won at the same time as savings can be achieved, jj attitudes will be positive, all other things being equal. On the other hand, if environmental good...

Current Recyclingreuse Rates

Jj Whitbread et al (1991) estimated that some 1 million tonnes of construction and demolition wastes are recycled each year to produce graded aggregates and that more than 11 mt are reused on u building sites for levelling purposes. The Howard Humphreys report (1994) supports this and suggests that a high proportion, perhaps 60 or more, of demolition and construction wastes are currently recycled. Howard Humphreys' research estimates that of the 70 mt of inert arisings estimated by Whitbread et...

Design for reuse

Design of buildings relies heavily on the use of composite materials such as reinforced concrete, rendered masonry, coated steel timber and so on. The eventual separation of these materials is rarely considered in design. Products need to be designed so as to be durable and easy to separate from other components materials. This may not always be easy since designing for flexibility and reuse is not always necessarily consistent with using minimum materials. Indispensable combinations of...

Designing for long life

Product longevity can be engineered through designing a durable product and or a product that can jj be easily and cheaply maintained. h i-i Some means of encouraging promoting waste minimisation at the design stage are recommended p Industry should team up with materials producers and suppliers in search of processes for O Multi-functional materials should be used wherever possible, serving for example to provide jj heat and sound insulation at the same time, whilst remaining economical. B...

Establishing a reliable database

A reliable waste management database is currently lacking in the UK construction and demolition industries, and is very much needed. Several attempts have been made at waste auditing, but effort needs to be concerted involving both those who produce the waste, those who reuse recycle it, and those who dispose of it. Further research should therefore involve third parties i.e. members of the construction industry (e.g. CIOB), members of the demolition industry (e.g. EDA IDE) and the Waste...

Funding

The responsibility for funding lies primarily with the construction and demolition industries, through associated organisations like CIRIA and the various institutes. This should be done in full consultation with those responsible in government departments for policy issues concerned with construction and demolition waste. Government may put some finance towards communication literature, if the right approaches are made. A level of funding may also be achieved through links with small and...

Future Aggregate Requirements And Supply

Possible demand for aggregates in England and Wales was projected to be between 420 and 490 million tonnes per annum by the year 2011 by the Government in May 1991 (ECOTEC Cambridge Econometrics, 1991). This can be compared to production of about 270 million tonnes in 1989. More recent estimates have moderated these projections and now indicate that primary aggregate demand in England and Wales could be between 370 and 440 mtpa by 2011 (DoE, 1994b). The Government favours a gradual change in...

Government Policy And Minerals Planning

In accordance with the Government's commitment to a sustainable approach to aggregates supply it is necessary to use all construction aggregates materials efficiently. Waste minimisation and avoiding the use of higher quality materials where lower grade materials would suffice are two key aims. Research carried out for the Government (BRE, 1994) has identified that while specifications need to accommodate an adequate margin of safety to ensure that unsuitable materials are not used and O that...

Introduction

A wide variety of waste materials arise from the construction and demolition industries. These variations exist in Table 2.1 lists the main materials which are wasted in constaiction and which may arise during demolition and assesses their potential for reuse, recycling and or waste minimisation. Primary and secondary aggregates are also shown. Primary aggregates are included to set the whole in context. Secondary aggregates are waste materials themselves (although not necessarily arising from...

Materials As Waste A method of categorisation

Waste Disposal Tree Diagram Marathi

As described above, many of these materials form part of the waste stream either in or during construction, or as a result of demolition. These materials may be categorised into one of three groups 3 Waste Materials Group 1 - those which are important for their value as materials to be 1-1 Waste Materials Group 2 - those which are waste materials from the O construction demolition process but which may be recycled Waste Materials Group 3 - those which are waste materials from the O construction...

Natural secondary aggregates

Natural secondary aggregates are sourced from naturally occurring geological formations and principally comprise colliery spoil, china clay sand and slate waste. Colliery spoil is the waste material produced in the process of deep mined coal extraction and some is known as minestone. China clay sand is a proportion of the spoil resulting from the production of china clay. Slate waste is the waste rock, not suitable for splitting, together with losses incurred in production. There are several...

O Asbestos

Asbestos is a hazardous substance and is therefore no longer used. In the past it was commonly employed in pipework, roofing sheets and lagging and for its fireproof properties. The removal of asbestos is a specialist task which can only be undertaken by contractors licensed under The u Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983. During the demolition of buildings and structures containing asbestos, pollution from asbestos fibres and, particularly, releases of dust to air must be prevented.

OConstruction

Q Because of the very large quantities of materials involved, road construction deserves particular attention. The road construction, rehabilitation and widening activity in the UK places significant a demands on the country's aggregate resources. Materials required include sub-base, basecourse, and wearing course materials of increasingly stringent specification in terms of strength, hardness, durability, particle shape and grading.

Overseas approaches

A more in-depth look is required into overseas experience. Some countries have already adopted certain possible solutions, such as a landfill tax, and the effects can thus be analysed on a case study basis. There may be a number of principal factors which distinguish the approach taken in other countries, and which might be the key to their advancement. The issues to be dealt with are wide and varied, from national pollution control differences to inclusion of certain amounts of recycled...

Packaging

Packaging of construction materials and products is necessary for the following reasons clear branding security Zj It should be emphasised that proper packaging plays a waste minimisation role in preventing O damage and subsequent wastage of materials. In 1993, the Secretary of State for the Environment jj challenged industry as a whole to prepare a national plan to recover value from 50-75 of all S packaging. If industry failed, the Government would legislate to mandate producer...

Prfabrication

Designing to accommodate materials on the market in standard product sizes should minimise cutoff wastage on construction sites. Factory controlled processes are more reliable, and can use more sophisticated techniques and fittings, all of which can reduce the net amount of material employed. However, pr fabrication only avoids the use of materials in sizes which do not correspond with dimensions of the structure if the designer is aware of the standard material sizes and has incorporated them...

Primary aggregates

Primary aggregates are obtained from sand and gravel pits, from rock quarries and from marine dredging. Sand and gravel is produced from pits all over Great Britain with deposits usually associated with current or historic water courses. Limestone and igneous rock are quarried from many of the upland areas of Great Britain (such as the Mendips, the Peak District and Scotland etc). These resources are described more fully in Aggregates - Geological Society Special Publication No 9 (1993).

Primary Materials

Figure 1.3 Sources of construction aggregates in Britain in 1989 (UK Mineral Statistics published by BGS) Figure 1.3 Sources of construction aggregates in Britain in 1989 (UK Mineral Statistics published by BGS) Figure 1.3 shows the five main sources of construction aggregates in Britain in 1989. The national aggregate resource base is finite. The Government takes the view that future sources of land-won primary aggregates are likely to become increasingly constrained in terms of acceptability...

Scope For Substituting Secondary Materials

W The Arup Economics and Planning 1991 study found a total utilisation of aggregates of about 332 million tonnes per annum at the end of the 1980s in Great Britain, and that about 32 million > tonnes per annum were derived from secondary materials. Thus secondary aggregates currently account for about 10 of total aggregate supply. Less environmentally damaging sources of aggregate supply need to be found and of particular interest is the substitution of primary aggregates, where possible, by...

Stage And Outputs

An overview report reviewing past and on-going work, setting out the present situation, and identifying possibilities and constraints. 2. A schedule of proposed follow-on studies which would produce guidance for specific industry sectors address particular cross-sectional issues help realise opportunities and overcome constraints. 3. A practical guide for building and civil engineering companies on good practice.

Standards Specifications And Regulations Introduction

A comprehensive account of the current situation with regards to existing standards and fp specifications is given by Sherwood and Collins (1993). This key reference provides a balanced, O unbiased view on the issues involved and an updated version is expected to be published in the ,_i Important points from this work are q Specifications for waste materials in building construction are incomplete in that many wastes are precluded from use (or from higher grade use) by a lack of systems to...

The Definition Of Waste

The definition of waste contained in Section 75(2) of the EPA 1990 has been amended in accordance with the definition set out in Article 1 of the EC Framework Directive. A common definition of waste is needed in order to improve the efficiency of waste management in the European Community, especially since the waste management licensing provisions of Part II of the EPA 1990, came into force on 1st May 1994 (see also Section 1.12.2). The UK Government published a Circular (The Definition of...

Waste minimisation practices

There are no data available on overseas waste minimisation practices that are either well known or readily available. Perhaps none exists and Skoyles (1987) is the first work of its kind. Germany's Waste Avoidance and Waste Management Act does state that the arising of building wastes will be minimised by appropriate measures on construction sites producers of construction materials and products in designing new materials and products should consider the need to avoid waste.

Incentives To Separate Materials

A) Stable markets exist for some salvaged materials Some demolition materials are in high demand, and thus well established markets exist for them. For example, ferrous metals have a high scrap value and it is thus economic to salvage this waste stream. The demand for recycled reused timber is also fairly strong throughout the UK since it can generally be supplied at a somewhat lower price than new timber and is preferred for its well seasoned properties. Recycled and or reused materials are...

Means of waste minimisation

As identified earlier, damage to materials and products and, therefore, wastage can be caused by one or a combination of the following Adoption of a Quality Assurance System should encourage employees to think about the construction process and the consequence of their actions on site. Ultimately, this should lead to improved waste minimisation. However, there is still room for improvement in the site management of materials and products. For example, by improving delivery access and allowing...

Logistics

To ensure the efficient and cost-effective recovery of waste materials on-site a number of logistical criteria should ideally be met. These include timing of the collection of recovered materials by scrap merchants recycling contractors and or operators from construction sites to coincide with (a) construction operations and (b) the availability of a significant volume and value of recovered material, so as to make collection and transportation costs economical sufficient space on site to carry...

Specifications

Specifications across Europe and the USA vary considerably in the performance standards they set for use of recycled materials. The Netherlands, Denmark and Germany all have some specifications in place for recycled aggregates, unlike France where if recycled aggregates are used, they must meet those specifications already in place for primary aggregates. In particular, the Netherlands have specifications in place for both crushed concrete aggregates and masonry aggregates. 20 of recycled...

Construction Issues

Construction projects tendered as total enterprise leave the contractor with the possibility of selecting the raw materials and construction techniques. Depending on the requirements included in the contracture contractor might choose solutions which obstruct the possibilities of a high recovery rate in order to keep the price low. Applicable construction techniques may be of a kind which allow selective demolition when the construction lifetime has run out. No research and development projects...

Designing for increased reuserecycling in construction and demolition

Recovery of demolition waste may be incorporated at an early stage in construction projects. The awarding authority client will have the opportunity to include criteria concerning requirements on selected primary secondary raw materials used in the construction building. Through selection of certain building materials and specific construction techniques it will be possible to reach a high recovery rate for the building construction after demolition. Little of the above has been applied until...

Reuse And Recycling Recovery opportunities

During the past decades reuse and recycling of demolition wastes has occurred on a rather informal level. Reuse and recycling has only been applied if certain materials were regarded as valuable or saleable by the contractors. Otherwise the waste has been disposed of in the cheapest way. Architectural salvage is a growing business whereby elements of demolition are recovered for reuse elsewhere through a network of wholesalers and retailers. Demolition methods are slowly changing with the...

Reuse And Recycling Of Materials On Site

Pre-sorting the waste is fundamental to the success of reuse and recycling programmes. For example, packaging is a major source of waste on site. The polyethylene wrapping from bricks, nylon webbing bands, metal bands, edge and corner protectors, and polystyrene blocks could all be recycled, but most goes in the same skip as all the other site waste materials. This renders the packaging materials almost valueless. The construction industry has a large number of different sub-contractors and...

Recyclingreuse practices

There is very little information regarding the recycling reuse of construction site wastes and, due to the lack of data, this category of waste appears to be incorporated into the figures for recycling reuse of demolition waste. Germany's Waste Avoidance and Waste Management Act covers the topic of reuse recycling of building wastes stressing that reuse recycling has priority over disposal materials hampering or preventing reuse recycling should be collected, kept and treated separately...

GIn The Uk

O In the 1991 survey on the occurrence and utilisation of mineral and construction wastes, carried out by Arup Economics and Planning for the Department of the Environment, it was estimated that about 24 million tonnes of demolition and construction waste arose in Great Britain in 1990 (Whitbread et al, 1991). Of this about 11 million tonnes were reused mainly as hardcore and fill cq on site. This estimate includes wasted construction materials (damaged materials and offcuts) but not surplus...

Town and Country Planning Acts

In England and Wales the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 and in Scotland the Town and Country Planning (Scotland) Act 1972 state that all waste disposal and recycling sites require planning permission. Planning permission must be obtained before application can be made for an operator licence under the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (EPA). Temporary recycling operations are permitted under the Town and Country Planning General Development Order (GDO) 1988, and in Scotland under the Town...

The Current Situation In The Construction Industry

Cd A recent industry report by Biffa Waste Services (1994) concluded that the rH construction demolition sector does not place great emphasis on waste management. Construction O and demolition companies themselves appeared to have a poor understanding of waste costs, j Fewer than 30 know how much they spend on waste - perhaps because current waste disposal t costs only amount to between 0.1 and 0.2 of turnover. However, rising landfill costs could q threaten the industry's future profitability....

Demolition And Dismantling Issues

A number of research and development projects have recently been launched or undertaken in Europe with respect to demolition and dismantling issues. Box 6.2 contains a few examples of these projects as well as examples of selective demolition demonstration projects in Denmark. Here selective demolition has been practised several times. Demolition and dismantling techniques have been developed and tested in full scale to achieve this end. Box 6.2 Case studies of European research, development...

Causes of waste on site

It is estimated that about 10 of building materials end up as waste on building sites Skoyles, 1987 . There are many contributory factors to this figure, both human and mechanical, and these are outlined below A. Site Management and Practices lack of a quality management system aimed at waste minimisation poor handling e.g. breakage, damage, losses over-sized foundations and other elements inadequate protection to finished work limited visibility on site resulting in damage poor design...

Waste management strategy of the European Union

The key principles of integrated waste management have also been recognised by the European Commission. In 1989 it produced its Strategy for Waste Management throughout the Community, which embodies the policy objectives of the Fourth Action Programme on the Environment in a series of strategic guidelines. These objectives set out a clear hierarchy of preferences in which waste recycling and reuse take precedence over all forms of disposal. The five strategic principles on which the...

Conclusions

The available evidence appears to indicate that the construction industry has already implemented those measures to effect waste minimisation on site which are currently financially attractive. Waste minimisation in the design process is less apparent as an active policy. There appears to be real resistance to both reuse and recycling by designers, specifiers, building and civil engineering contractors and demolition contractors alike. The key constraints are time and cost. The economic...

Downgrading of materials

A proportion of civil engineering and structural demolition materials are reused in some form or another for instance, the rubble of buildings and the broken concrete of old roads and airfield pavements is often used in landfills as capping layers, drainage blanket material for haul roads and so on. However, this secondary use of materials is a significant downgrading and may be regarded as waste where those materials could be used in a higher grade capacity or to replace primary materials....

Demolition Site Practices Including Refurbishment

Poole Power Station

A range of demolition methods are fully described in the Proceedings of the Second International RILEM Symposium Volume 1 Demolition Methods and Practice, 1988. However, for the purposes of waste minimisation, recycling and reuse it is only necessary to discuss the two extreme cases, namely wholesale demolition by various methods, and dismantling, since these represent the worst and best scenarios respectively, with regard to beneficial reuse and recycling of the materials. Commercial pressures...

Markets and logistics

Much work is required on the markets and logistics of recycling and reusing individual waste materials or groups of materials. In Section 2, the materials were categorised into three groups See also Section 7.1 . These are mainly wastes arising from demolition and effort should be concentrated on crushed concrete, brick and masonry. This is because large volumes of these materials are potentially available so that a significant impact on the provision of building materials, a reduction in...