Materials

CQ Materials vary in the ease with which they can be separated from the general mass of a dismantled or demolished building - iron and steel, for instance, can be separated magnetically, copper and tin cannot glass and plasterboard are very likely to be damaged when removed from a building but timber is more robust. Understanding the processes of deconstructing and demolishing S buildings is vitally important to assessing the opportunities for reusing components and recycling materials. Current...

S very important x less important

Provide identification of materials and components Design for simultaneous, parallel disassembly and deconstruction Design for deconstruction using common tools and equipment rather than bespoke tools Minimise the number of different types of components. Mechanical in preference to chemical connections. Provide good access for deconstruction, especially connections. Design components sized to suit appropriate means of handling. Provide adequate tolerances for assembly and deconstruction. Design...

Facilitating Design For Deconstruction

Previous chapters have highlighted some good reasons for designing a building for deconstruction to facilitate reuse and recycling. In practice, someone has to decide - for any particular project - whether to design it with its afterlife in mind. As, when making any decision, this requires a study of the potential benefits and the costs, as well as an analysis of the many drivers that might provide encouragement and, of course, the various barriers to be overcome to achieve the aspiration. This...

Ensuring delivery of project objectives

If they are to be achieved, the objectives of designing for deconstruction need to be clearly established and agreed by the project team early in the project. Different members of the team will have different inputs to offer. Client - liaise with an appropriate consultant to develop deconstruction objectives (See Section 2.3 and Section 4.3.2). Establish how to incorporate these in the design brief, employers' requirements, etc identify to the project team the reasons why a building that...

Current Demolition Practices

The current practices employed by the demolition industry relate closely to what has been described in BS6187 2000. The standard, used extensively throughout Europe and world-wide by Europe-based companies, provides a clear structure for the demolition procurement and management processes. Commercial issues are the main drivers for the methods for soft strip and demolition as well as the disposal of the materials streams efficiency, risk management, time and cost. Commercially valuable...

Abbreviations

BRE Building Research Establishment BSI British Standards Institution CDM Construction Design and Management (Regulations) 1994 CIB Conseil International du B timent (International Council for Building) COSHH Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (Regulations) 2002 DfD Design-for-dismantling or Design-for-deconstruction ELVs End-of-life Vehicles (Directive) a transparent film used to make air-filled cushions employed in some GRP Glass-reinforced plastic, or polyester HSE Health & Safety...

Additional design costs

For deconstruction to be considered at the design stage, time will need to be devoted to the issue and this will add to the design costs, both directly and in the additional effort needed to evaluate the benefits of deconstruction against any additional costs. Procurement and contractual responsibilities 0 As design of a building progresses beyond Scheme Design stage (RIBA Stage C), responsibility for detail design is often > transferred to specialist contractors. Beyond Detail Design stage...

Appendix B The Recycling Of Materials

This appendix considers the processes by which construction materials can be recovered and recycled. The following issues are highlighted to better understand how to design a building to be more easily deconstructable, it is important to understand the potential of different materials to be recovered and recycled different materials are recovered and processed in different ways the viability of recycling in the current marketplace is highly dependent upon - quantities of material likely to be...

Architectural ironmongery

Steps to maximise value at deconstruction Design for reuse after deconstruction Design for recycling after deconstruction Architectural ironmongery varies from inexpensive, mass-produced products, to high-class, handmade designs. A wide range of products may be included, some of which overlap with other categories (such as building services or furniture) door furniture door-handles, hangings, closers, hinges, door-knobs, door-knockers, letter-plates, bolts, studs, finger plates, coat-hooks,...

Aspiring to a zerowaste economy

The aim of achieving zero-energy buildings - buildings that consume no non-renewable sources of energy - is already familiar, though still hard to achieve. The analogous goal of using only renewable materials in building is not realistic - metals, for example, are no longer being created on our planet and so are finite resources. The only solution for materials will be to learn how to use them again and again once they have been taken from the earth. To achieve this will require a fundamental...

Bricksblockspavoirs

Bricks, blocks and pavoirs can all be reused provided they are not worn or excessively damaged or recycled. However their reclamation may be inhibited by the presence of other products and materials associated with their use, for example mortars and screeds. They are also bulky and this may present problems (ie the costs of transport and storage). Many types of old bricks have a high reuse value and, provided they do not crumble, will be manually cleaned ready for transportation and resale....

Glass

Glass is one of the easiest commodities to recycle, though remelting it is an energy-intensive process. Also, there are many different uses for recycled glass. Today the majority of glass that is recycled is crushed and used in the manufacture of new glass containers or fibreglass insulation, and other secondary uses are developing quickly. Glass is a hard, relatively inert material and cn can be processed into finely graded products for many applications. In particular, finely-graded glass...

Polymers

Polymer or plastic products are nowadays widely used in building construction. However, the reuse or recycling of polymers used in construction industry is inhibited by several factors the wide variety of types of polymer material the current technologies available to segregate the different types of polymer materials the fact that many polymers are used as the main volumetric ingredient of composite materials the lack of recycling facilities. Recycling could become a more viable option with a...

Brickwork panels

The fa ade of the extension to IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique Musique, Paris), designed by Richard Rogers Partnership, has a cladding system comprising brickwork panels which could be removed intact and reused, or dismantled to yield the basic components.

Cd

While the guidance is aimed mainly at those engaged in the design stage of building projects, it will also inform those engaged in other stages which are influenced by the work of designers, including detail design on and off site specification of materials at tender stage of building projects selection and appointment of specialist contractors and suppliers of materials and components appraisal of environmental impact of construction project and design management environmental management of...

Commercial and programme constraints

There are often many financial barriers that inhibit the reuse of building elements and the use of recycled materials. The processes of cleaning, reconditioning and re-certification can be labour-intensive and this can often raise the price of reclaimed products and materials above their value. The testing and control of quality is also expensive. New and less costly processes will be developed as the demand for them rises. The cost of storing reclaimed products and transporting them to where...

Composite construction

The structure of all major buildings is, nowadays, constructed in ways that exploit the considerable benefits of composite construction in which different materials or components are bonded together so that they can work together. At deconstruction, the components or elements used in composite construction need to be separated if they are to be reused. This can be difficult to achieve without damage to the components. Examples of composite construction are the use of shear studs to link steel...

Construction information storage

During the construction of 95 Queen Victoria Street, an office development in London, the development managers, Stanhope plc, and contractors, Bovls Lend Lease, used a number of data gathering tools for each of the sub-contract work packages, which is intended to prove useful when the building is deconstructed at the end of its life. A web-based tool Asite was used that allowed all members of the construction team to share, exchange and reuse information as required. The information stored on...

Contents

Acknowledgements Contents Glossary Abbreviations 1.2 CURRENT MARKET ISSUES FOR THE WASTE INDUSTRY Principles for increasing reuse of building components and recycling of materials 2.1 THE LIFE-CYCLE OF PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS 2.1.1 The Delft Ladder 2.1.2 The waste hierarchy 2.2 ASSESSING THE POTENTIAL FOR REUSE AND RECYCLING 2.2.2 Building elements and construction systems 2.3 HOW TO APPROACH DESIGN FOR DECONSTRUCTION 2.3.1 Why are you designing for reuse or recycling 2.3.2 When designing for...

Current Market Issues For The Waste Industry

The way that the whole issue of waste is viewed has changed considerably in recent years under growing pressures from national and local government, construction clients and the public at large. Economic and environmental issues, a drive for safer working conditions and practices and increasing time and cost constraints experienced by the various players in the construction and demolition industries, have also had their influence. Rather than using the single category of waste, it is becoming...

The automobile industry

A series of Articles under the End-of-Life Vehicles Directive cover bans on hazardous substances and materials (Article 4) Ij economic operators to set up collection systems (Article 5) stipulations on storage and treatment methods for ELVs (Article 6) requirements and targets for reuse and recovery (with a preference for recycling) (Article 7). By 2006 a minimum of 85 per cent by average weight per vehicle and year must be reused, recycled or recovered - 80 per cent minimum reused or recycled...

Demountable buildings

Demountable structures are those designed to be partially or completely disassembled with the intention of repeated re-erection jj Perhaps the most familiar example of a building that can be demounted is the tent. This has come in many shapes and sizes over A many millennia. The main influence on their design has been the need to be portable and reusable many times. This was a requirement for the shelter used by all nomadic peoples - the Bedouin tents of north Africa, the yurts of Mongolia and...

DSpecification of deconstruction method for the building

A building client should ensure that a plan and methodology for deconstruction is produced when the building or refurbishment 0 work is undertaken. This should include a statement of how the building has been designed to facilitate deconstruction, an jJ inventory of materials and components in the building, and any implications relating to CDM regulations. This information 0 should be kept with the building's Health and Safety File and be updated as appropriate. U

Specification of service provision

As discussed in Section 2.4.2, an effective means of maintaining producer responsibility for equipment is by means of a contract. This avoids the need to specify the separate issues identified above. Licensed copy Demontfort University, 29 02 2008, Uncontrolled Copy, CIRIA

Exhibition building

IBM required a building that could be erected and dismantled several times to house a travelling exhibition about the firm. Nevertheless, a greater degree of solidity was required than a tent or inflatable structure would provide. The building devised by architect Renzo Piano and engineer Peter Rice, provides an elegant illustration of how the need for deconstruction was adapted to suit the different materials - timber, aluminium and Perspex - and the limitation on the size and weight of the...

Experience In Other Manufacturing Industries

The issue of deconstruction and end-of-life is already being addressed in several manufacturing industries, most notably the automobile industry. This is being achieved by means of a legal framework based on the notion of producer responsibility. A series of proposed directives and national producer responsibility legislation is evolving and already affects the automotive industry, electronic and electrical industries and industries connected with manufacturing and using packaging. The long...

Health

The IFD programme in Holland see 5.2 has demonstrated that easy dismantling or deconstruction is often assured if a building or building component or piece of installed equipment has been designed for easy assembly - buildability and deconstructability are often two sides of the same coin. Industrialised building processes tend to lead to increased use of standard identical components, sub-assemblies and entire prefabricated units. This approach can help ensure easy deconstruction and reuse, as...

Highperformance manufacturing building

Easy access to high-performance plant is provided by strict zoning of the building. The manufacturing zone contains no serviceable building services equipment. Photo courtesy of Building Design Partnership Photo courtesy of Building Design Partnership By locating building services plant and equipment on the outside of the building it can be more easily replaced. There is considerable potential for using pr fabrication and pre-assembly techniques in mechanical and electrical services. Many...

How To Approach Design For Deconstruction

This section addresses the general guidance designers might follow when first considering how to design something so that it might be more easily deconstructed and reused, or the materials of which it is made separated and recycled. Specific guidance concerning the different building elements is presented in Chapter 3. Various other sections of this guide provide the background context of which the designer needs to be aware when designing elements of a building for deconstruction to facilitate...

Hurdles to overcome to design for deconstruction Lack of legislation

There is currently no legislation in the UK that requires clients or contractors to consider deconstruction at the design stage of a building project. It is often easier for people to continue to do what they have previously done - design without thinking about reuse or recycling. What is more, most people in all cultures, like new things in preference to second hand. Protagonists for reuse and recycling require considerable dedication and determination against reluctance or sometimes even...

INFRA Space floor

The Dutch INFRA+ Space floor system is a prefabricated flooring system which allows building services to be integrated into the structure beneath a raised floor. It was developed with both rapid construction and deconstructability in mind, as well as potential reuse. Hot water heating elements can be also integrated into the underside of the panels to provide radiant heating from the ceilings. The INFRA+ floor system can be used as part of a fully prefabricated building system incorporating...

Initial investigations and planning

The following initial activities need be undertaken by a contractor preparing to undertake demolition desk study to record all available information completion of and access to decommissioning reports identification of all structural features and all possible hazards consideration of pertinent and relevant legislative requirements proposal of safe working arrangements selection of suitable demolition principles and methodology.

Key Documents Relating To Waste And Recycling In The Uk

Aggregates Levy (General) Regulations - 2OO2 Control of Asbestos at work (Amendment) Regulations - 1992 Control of Asbestos in the Air Regulations - 199O Development of the UK waste catalogue - 31 August 2OO2 End-of-life Vehicles (ELVs) Directive - 2OOO Environmental Protection (Duty of Care) Regulations - 1991 Finance Act - 199 (Primary legislation) Landfill Tax (Amendment) Regulations - 199S (SI S) Packaging and Packaging Waste Directives - 1994 Restriction of Hazardous Substances (ROHS) -...

Landfill tax

-H To reflect the need to reduce materials sent to landfill, the UK Government has imposed a landfill tax since 1996. Landfill tax on domestic waste in Britain is already 28 per tonne. Two rates apply for non-domestic waste a lower rate of 2 per tonne applies inactive (or inert) waste (as defined in the Landfill Tax (Qualifying Material) Order 1996), and a standard Landfill Tax rate applying to all other taxable waste. This standard rate is set to increase from the current 14 per tonne from...

Legal constraints

Standard contracts often require the specification of new materials, products or equipment and care is needed to obtain appropriate warranties of used or recycled materials or components. Designers and specifiers are also subject to various common law liabilities, such as negligence. A specifier has a duty to exercise the reasonable skill and care to be expected of an ordinarily competent member of his profession. Whilst it would not of itself be negligent to specify a recycled or second-hand...

Lessons for designing for deconstruction to facilitate reuse and recycling

Almost all building components and materials are reusable or recyclable, as long as they can be separated and segregated. High-value components and building materials, produced in large quantities or volumes, will be the most economical to reuse or recycle. choose to use materials that can easily be recycled choose to use materials for which, when recycled, a viable market exists whenever possible design products or elements that can be separated easily into units made of one material whenever...

O Work plan

-j The management and demolition techniques to be used can then be planned in relation to these hazards to minimise the risks. This includes the use and effective implementation of exclusion zones, environmental protection methods, material recovery iH options and mitigation of the identified potential risks during the work. -U 3 The sequence of building demolition, and the detailed execution of the various stages depends on the size and type of the building, but typically is as follows...

Performance guarantees

A great deal of equipment in buildings, especially the mechanical and electrical building services equipment, generally have a defined and relatively short life. In an increasingly litigious world there are also many safety issues to consider - electrical safety and contamination of air or water passing through a used device. Before reusing such equipment after removal from a building, it will be necessary to establish the life remaining, possibly to recondition and test the component, and...

Planning permission

3 There is already a requirement for planning submission for large projects to include an Environmental Impact Assessment Plan outlining the project's predicted impact on the environment, and the steps taken to mitigate it. As environmental pressures on the construction industry grow, so too will the significance of design for deconstruction as an important means of mitigating long-term environmental impact. fi Many current Unitary and Regional Development Plans include policies to reduce...

Plasterboard

Many modern buildings use plasterboard partition walls made from Gypsum (calcium sulphate), obtained from quarrying and from a process called Flue Gas Desulphurisation (FGD) which is used to scrub the sulphur emissions from fossil-fuel burning 0 power stations. This is done by using a finely ground limestone which reacts with sulphur dioxide to produce a very high purity S gypsum as a by-product. 0(8 Plasterboard waste materials can easily be recycled back into the manufacture of new...

Plasterwork and rendering

Steps to maximise value at deconstruction Design for reuse after deconstruction Design for recycling after deconstruction Plastering and rendering involves applying plaster and similar materials or plasterboard to ceilings and interior walls of buildings. The primary purposes of a plaster finish are as decoration and to cover up unevenness in the background. It provides a smooth, hygienic, crack-free surface that is suited to the application of the desired finish. Plasterwork and rendering is...

Principles For Increasing Reuse Of Building Components And Recycling Of Materials

This chapter presents four approaches that can each influence the design and specification of materials and building components to facilitate reuse and recycling after deconstruction (i) Consider the whole life of a product or material This will help identify actions that can be taken at different stages of a material's life to prevent it becoming waste (Section 2.1). (ii) Consider the potential of components for reuse This will help identify those components which are most likely able to be...

Producer responsibility

Following trends in the manufacture of cars, ships, chemicals and consumer goods, more and more manufacturing industries are being required to take greater responsibility for the materials they use and the harm or impact they may have on our environment and society at large. This driver is also likely to move producers towards product-service systems where they maintain ownership of the product and lease it to the consumer, maintaining, repairing and upgrading as necessary, and ultimately...

QMixed Waste Sorting Facilities MWSFs

i These are also known as dirty MRFs or waste transfer stations and are designed to process mixed waste that is unmanaged and f i O may contain large volumes of wet wastes, such as soils and other organic materials. MWSFs are best-suited to handling materials Historically waste management facilities have been low-tech, labour intensive operations. The mixed waste enters the site, passing CD through a weighbridge to calculate the weight of the waste (and therefore the charges applicable). The...

Reconditioned transformers

A healthy market exists for reconditioned transformers and firms are easily found through trade directories. One such firm, Wortex < www.wortexuk.com> describes the reconditioning process as follows Each incoming transformer undergoes meticulous inspection before actual reconditioning work begins. A set of electrical and mechanical tests determines the problem with the equipment and the method, time and materials necessary to correct it. In the case of oil-cooled units, the fluid is drained...

Recovery

Waste recovery has three components recycling - collecting and separating materials from waste and reprocessing them to produce marketable products composting - processing biologically degradable organic waste aerobically to produce a reasonably stable, granular material energy - incinerating waste to generate energy. t Disposal of waste to a landfill site or land raised site. Source Making Waste Work, Department of the Environment, 1995

Recycling Designers can aid the demolition process and increase the likelihood of reuse and recyclin

Q how best to provide information about the types and amount of materials and components in a building, and their location how the various elements of a building can be taken out during deconstruction how elements of a building can be dismantled for reuse what elements of a building can be reused, recycled or downcycled (for example, might a structural steel beam be reused after deconstruction in another building or could it be used for a temporary structure Can limited damage be tolerated,...

Relative environmental impact

The main driver for reuse and recycling is to reduce man's impact on the environment. However, it can be that recycling used materials may have a larger impact on the environment than using new ones. Glass is a case in point, with many environmentalists arguing that, at a domestic level, the impact of the transport involved in recycling glass vessels is greater than the benefits gained from reducing the manufacture of new glass. Similarly with the reconditioning of materials or equipment...

Reuse

Make it easier to ascertain at deconstruction the useful life of the product remaining seek advice from manufacturers on how the residual value of a product might be established seek advice from manufacturers on how the residual value of a product might be enhanced try to ensure that time-dependent and time-independent characteristics of a product can be distinguished and assessed (eg wearing and non-wearing components) seek advice from manufacturers on how the product might be reconditioned to...

Reuse of computer equipment

The Department of Trade and Industry produces a free guide on the reuse of unwanted computer equipment. It contains sections on types of refurbishment activity in the UK, examples of schemes operating in the UK, examples of overseas refurbishment experience, and a directory of companies and organisations claiming to be actively engaged in computer refurbishment in the UK. It discusses liability, quality standards, safety, and software issues. The number of machines refurbished each year has...

S A Building Demolition

The 1983 British Standard Code of Practice for Demolition was reviewed in the 1990s and, after public consultation, the new British Standard BS6187 2000 was issued on 15 September 2000. The lengthy consultation and review process had been necessary to reflect a number of significant changes in the demolition industry fundamental changes to demolition methods because of the development and introduction of new plant and equipment .,_ incorporating, for example, super long reach and robotic and...

Specification of longterm management of the building

Ensure an appropriate life-cycle management system is in place (eg as part of the Environmental Management System). This will help ensure the principles of designing for deconstruction are followed throughout design and construction stages, the operational phase (including maintenance) through to refurbishment and eventual decommissioning, when the main benefits of designing to facilitate deconstruction are realised. see CIRIA publication Environmental management in construction C533

Specification of materials

> list prohibited and preferred materials eliminate use of toxic or contaminated materials minimise number and variety of components minimise number and variety of materials use alternatives to synthetic composite materials eliminate the use of secondary coatings use alternatives to fluid sealants and fillings identify materials and components with a unique identification mark.

Swiss Expo

The steel piles used for the exhibition pavilion built over the lake of Neuchatel were rented from the steel supplier and returned, undamaged, after their use for six months. The only constraint on the construction was the need to avoid drilling holes in the steel. Bolted clamps were used instead. Photo courtesy of Jean-Luc Sandoz, Concept, Bois, Structure. Such long-term, closed-loop thinking will inevitably lead to fundamental changes in the way buildings are designed and constructed but will...

The costeffectiveness of substituting glass for conventional aggregate is highly dependant on the lo

Finely-graded glass has also been tested in the late 1990s in the USA in Elastomeric roof coatings, a blend of polymers and fillers q spread on roofs to minimise the effects of weathering. Another potential benefit of using glass in roof coatings is as a replacement for currently-used industrial mineral fillers, such as U flint, talc, and various dry clays, that contain naturally occurring crystalline silica, the dusts of which are associated with serious r lung disorders such as silicosis....

The materials streams of demolition

The materials streams arising from a typical structure include the following iron and steel, especially structural steel non-ferrous metals glass bricks and slates structure or fa ade cladding materials such as masonry, concrete, glass-reinforced plastic, marble, etc masonry concrete rubble polluted concrete chimney elements etc M& E services and localised connections pavement materials, including asphalt soil, foundations and fill non-combustibles ceramic pipes, plaster, plumping, porcelain...

The notion of ownership

There are clear differences in attitude between owners of buildings (eg private houses) and those who live in rented accommodation - the former are much more likely to look after, maintain and repair the property than the latter. The same applies to the owner-driver and driver of a rented car. A leased car, with a buy-back option, is different. The user may be restricted in the use of the car, and be required to have it maintained at specified intervals by registered maintenance firms. If...

What information needs to be provided to facilitate reuse and recycling

Li Careful deconstruction of a building to facilitate reuse and recycling will be easier, cheaper and more likely to be undertaken if the following information is available to those assessing whether deconstruction is feasible -H t3 a full set of as-built drawings a full set of specifications for components and the materials of which they are made, including details of manufacturers or suppliers details of the design life or service life of components, plant and equipment details of warrantees...

Xerox photocopiers

Many manufacturers of photocopiers have already addressed reuse and recycling take-back service for ink cartridges standardise motors, scanners etc to allow use of refurbished products provision of photocopying service based on hire, maintenance and take-back in preference to purchase. The philosophy of their service is as follows Base unit assembly. Build and test Takeback Disassembly. After Sort inspection The basic unit comprising such items as the frame and wire harness is assembled ready...

Yorkon and Terrapin modular buildings

Yorkon and Terrapin make modular buildings that can be leased then removed when no longer needed. Entire buildings up to four storeys high are available either as standard products or designed to suit the client's precise needs. All the building systems were developed specifically for this purpose and, when dismantled, the components are reconditioned and returned to the warehouse for use in the next required building. These buildings have been devised to incorporate all building services using...

Architect Bill Dunster Architects Engineers Ove Arup

Sheet steel piles are usually removable for reuse or recycling, depending on the conditions of installation, for example they cannot be removed where concrete has been cast against them, and usually retained where there is a risk of vibration to surrounding structures. Non-ferrous metals including copper, brass, bronze, aluminium, zinc, tin and lead, tend to have a higher value than ferrous metals (up to 1500 per tonne), and so have a great potential for reuse or recycling. Copper or other...

Drivers Encouraging Deconstruction For Reuse And Recycling

Constructing buildings in ways that will allow them to be easily dismantled or deconstructed is already feasible from a technical point of view. However, the main drivers that will bring about the widespread reuse of building components and recycling of building materials are likely to be non-technical - environmental, socio-economic, commercial, political and risk management. Few of the following principal drivers are yet strong enough to motivate clients and construction teams to implement...

Why are you designing for reuse or recycling

The most important issue to guide the project team during the design phase of a building project will be the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of designing to facilitate reuse or recycling. Only in this way can the many competing demands on time and resources be established and balanced. The answer to the question above will depend fundamentally on who you are a client (and what type of client) a designer (engineering, architect) another member of project team a manufacturer of a product...

Assessing The Potential For Reuse And Recycling

Designers and specifiers constantly are faced with choices between alternatives. So that deconstruction and subsequent reuse and & recycling can be brought into the process of choosing, alongside cost, performance, durability etc, suitable selection criteria need U to be established. Decisions about how and why to choose reuse or recycling, and how best to minimise the quantities of materials sent to landfill, will be influenced by the criteria used to evaluate the environmental impact of...

When designing for reuse or recycling what type of reuse or recycling are you designing for

It will only be possible to design for a certain outcome if you either know, or can imagine how a building component or element will (or might) be reused recycled - who will want to use it, how and where Taken literally this is, of course, impossible. Nevertheless, educated guesses can be made and will be better than no guesses at all. So great are the differences between the processes of reconditioning for reuse and the separation and processing of materials for recycling that the first and...

The recycling of concrete reclaimed from a former airport runway for use as piling mat and fill mate

The reuse or recycling of concrete can often avoid high costs and the environmental impacts associated with disposal to landfill due to taxes and transportation. Nevertheless, the feasibility of recycling concrete tends to depend on the location. If there is no local demand it is not usually economical to recycle concrete due to transport costs and the availability of cheaper primary aggregates. The introduction of the Aggregates Levy in April 2002, which is applied to the extraction of primary...

Recycling concrete Wessex Water

The exposed concrete soffit incorporated aggregate made from crushed railway sleepers. Architect Rab Bennetts Associates Engineers Buro Happold Photo courtesy of Mandy Reynolds, Buro Happold Photo courtesy of Mandy Reynolds, Buro Happold Neither composite floors such as Slimdeck nor reinforced floors can be disassembled. For structural reasons they use permanent bonding between the steel and concrete, resulting in limited potential for reuse. Recycling by crushing and separation of the...

Recycling

Make it easier to ascertain at deconstruction the materials available for recycling seek from manufacturers details of all materials used in building components provide relevant information for those engaged in deconstruction (see Section 2.3.4). Consider carefully which materials are used do not specify materials that cannot be recycled because they are hazardous. (See Restriction of Hazardous Substances specify materials that can be recycled by taking advice from those engaged in the...

Key Organisations Engaged In Work Related To Deconstruction For Reuse And Recycling

For those who want quickly to find the latest research undertaken in this new and rapidly-expanding field, the following avenues are recommended. CIB Technical Group TG39 Design for Deconstruction Industrieel Flexibel en Demontabel Bouwen (Industrial, flexible and demountable building), Netherlands < www.sev.nl ifd> The following organisations, sources of guidance and initiatives, are also useful. British Cement Association (BCA) < www.bca.org.uk> British Standards Institution (BSI) <...

Reuse And Recycling

Using easily-reversible fixing, eg fixing of skirtings to walls. This makes deconstruction without damage more difficult if not impossible. 4.3 MANAGING THE DELIVERY OF DESIGN FOR DECONSTRUCTION TO FACILITATE It is one thing to design a building for deconstruction to facilitate reuse or recycling it is quite another to ensure that it is actually constructed that way. Designers' proposals and intentions are often changed between detail design and the completion of a building. Those who control...

Quicon steel connection system

Quicon Connection

Photos courtesy of Steel Construction Institute The Quicon system has been developed to allow rapid assembly of steel frame structures and, equally, their rapid disassembly. Based on standard fixings and dimensions, the system lends itself to reuse after deconstruction with a minimum of refurbishment and re-engineering. Photos courtesy of Steel Construction Institute Steps to maximise value at deconstruction Design for reuse after deconstruction Design for recycling after deconstruction In...

Electrical and electronic equipment

O The production of Electrical and Electronic Equipment is one of the fastest growing domains of manufacturing industry in the v Western world. Technological innovation and market expansion accelerate the replacement process and new applications of q electrical and electronic equipment are increasing significantly. Therefore the resulting rapid growth of waste from electrical and electronic equipment WEEE is of concern. Figures show that the growth of WEEE is about three times higher than the...

Steps to maximise value at deconstruction

Design for reuse after deconstruction Design for recycling after deconstruction Roof structures support the roof sections of the building envelope which is dealt with in 3.4 . They are designed generally to carry imposed loads due to snow and wind, as well as loads arising from the need to have access to roof level for maintenance. They may also need to carry plant and equipment. Roof structures are generally of four kinds a truss or framework structure that supports a cladding of some kind, eg...

Japanese Pavilion Expo Hanover

The recycling of building materials and components was one of the design criteria for the Japanese Pavilion. All building elements had to be recycled after the exhibition using a minimum of energy. The foundations were wooden boxes filled with sand - the sand could be reused later in the building industry and the timber planks ended as chipboard. The superstructure was made of cardboard tubes and timber -the cardboard was recycled in the paper industry and the timber ended up as chipboard. All...

Building elements and construction systems

Adhesive For Rubber Floor Tiles

Building elements are usually installed using a series of assembly and fixing processes which strongly affect how reversible the process is and the degree of damage that is likely to be caused in the deconstruction process. As a simple example, a bolted ft connection is easier to deconstruct without damage than a welded or glued one. U -j In principle, each alternative way of constructing a building element could be analysed to reveal which would be the preferred choice if deconstruction and...

Demountable building Waterloo Road London

Design For Deconstruction Modular Units

Phot courtesy of Edwin Shirley Staging Temporary accommodation of a very high standard is nowadays available for leasing. Typically, a temporary classroom, office or supermarket building may be used while a permanent building is being refurbished, extended or repaired after a fire. These are designed for quick erection and easy dismantling using standardised frames, floors, panels, windows and internal fittings. While the performance and durability of such buildings would probably not match...

IDIS International Dismantling Information System

Smart Car Tech Info

The automotive industry has responded to stringent legislation concerning disposal of materials by joining forces. IDIS, the International Dismantling Information System was originally developed by 10 European car manufacturers and was intended to provide dismantlers with valuable information for an environmentally-sound treatment of end-of-life vehicles ELV . This has subsequently grown into the IDIS 2 Consortium representing 23 automotive manufacturers, including all major manufacturers from...

Why Reuse And Recycle

The construction and building industries consume huge quantities of materials see Table 1.1 . The environmental impact of the extraction, gathering and production of these materials is large and growing. Moreover, when buildings are constructed large quantities of materials are wasted and most of these are sent to landfill see Table 1.2 . Quantities of materials used in building and construction In UK CIRA SP116, Voi.A, 1995 Metals steel, copper, brass, aluminium and alloys Polymers PVC,...

Case Studythe Millennium cinema Skyscape

Q The Millennium exhibition at Greenwich included a cinema that would be needed for only one year. Its design was largely influenced by the way the O contract was let - the building would remain in the ownership of the firm who designed and made it and it would be the firm's responsibility to remove it at the end of the year. A modular, demountable system was devised that could be assembled in many different ways so that it could be used in different forms and locations after its year at...

Waste is defined in the Environmental Protection Act as

a any substance which constitutes a scrap material or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from the application of any process, and b any substance or article which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn out, contaminated or otherwise spoiled. o The Act also provides that anything that is discarded or otherwise dealt with as if it were waste shall be presumed to be waste unless evidence to the contrary is provided. cm See CIRIA publication Waste minimisation and...

Temporary buildings

A temporary building or structure is one intended from the outset to have a short life before its dismantling or deconstruction and removal, usually for use again in a new location. While demountable structures are usually in place for a matter of days or a O few weeks, temporary buildings are likely to be in place for longer periods. Although the scope of this guide does not cover such moveable and temporary buildings as these, the boundary between them and so-called permanent buildings is...

Authors

The report was produced as a result of CIRIA Research Project RP656, Principles of design to facilitate deconstruction for reuse and recycling. The work was carried out by a consortium led by Buro Happold and including Bovis Lend Lease. The principal contributors were Bill Addis Buro Happold , J0rgen Schouten URS Corporation Ltd, formerly Bovis Lend Lease , Andrew Kinsey Bovis Lend Lease , and Poul Wend Hansen Bovis Lend Lease . Additional material and valuable advice was provided by Scot...

SMT demountable precast concrete system

Precast Concrete System

The SMT system is one of five demountable precast concrete systems currently available in the Dutch construction market see Vambersky, 1994 . It comprises a series of standard columns and floor slabs which are bolted in place after assembly to form movement-resisting connections which provide the frame with stability. Overall stability is provided by a range of standard fagade internal wall panels. The system was developed with both speedy construction and demountability in mind. for SMTBOUW,...

The Dutch Industrial Flexible And Deconstructable Building Programme

A consumer who is wise and knows what he wants, will get his building exactly according to his demands after an old Dutch children s song In the spirit of this children s song, the Dutch government believe that the consumer should take an active part in the realisation of buildings and housing to achieve a higher utility value and greater living satisfaction. Following the Dutch government s vision that durability and market forces should apply to building and housing, the Industrial, Flexible...