The recycling scheme

Two feasible options exist for the operation of a separation at source door-to-door collection service for materials suitable for recycling. The first option is for each local council to operate the collection as part of the normal municipal collection. Some local councils have attempted to operate recycling schemes of this nature, but have limited the collection to glass beverage bottles, paper, and aluminium cans. Where this type of partial recycling scheme has been introduced, the...

Cost of operating a recycling collection scheme

The average weekly expenditure incurred by a contractor for operating a door to door collection service, varies between 9 cents and 27 cents per dwelling per week. The variation in this cost depends primarily on the frequency of the collection, and the number of employees per recycling scheme. Approximately 70 of the cost can be attributed to wages for the sorting and collection crew employees. It is assumed that employees are averaging 25 hours working time per week and paid at a rate...

Cost of establishing a recycling collection scheme

To establish the means of providing a bag type collection scheme servicing one collection round of 5000 dwellings, an initial capital expenditure between 79000 and 123000 would allow for the purchase of land for siting the collection and separation depot, a one to three tonne collection truck, a forklift to move larger containers around the depot and to off-load the collection truck, sufficient collection bags to operate an exchange system on the day of collection for each dwelling within the...

Acknowledgements

The Environmental Protection Authority gratefully acknowledges the information and advice received from the following Australian Paper Manufacturers, Spearwood Councils and Shires of Western Australia Federated Municipal and Shire Council Employees Union of Australia WA Division Keep Australia Beautiful Council WA Waste Management Authority of New South Wales School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Murdoch University Dr Goen Ho

Paper

Paper represents the bulk of the readily recyclable material, by weight, in domestic refuse, newsprint and cardboard accounting for 20 of this total, the remainder comprising mixed quality grade papers, such as high quality computer printing or photocopy paper, plastic coated papers such as milk cartons, and magazines. An estimated 200000 tonnes of paper based products are discarded and landfilled annually. Approximately 90 of these paper products would have been produced from 100 virgin wood...

Introduction

Perth metropolitan households generate around 500000 tonnes of domestic refuse annually, and all but a small proportion of this will find its way into sanitary landfill. Landfill, once thought to be the best way of getting rid of domestic refuse whilst eliminating the inconvenience of low-lying waste lands, has since become increasingly associated with groundwater pollution, and the harbouring of organisms capable of causing and spreading disease and infection. More recently, landfill sites...

Glass

Glass is produced locally within the Perth metropolitan area, yet less than 30 of the annual production of glass in circulation each year is collected for recycling. The majority of glass discarded in urban refuse is from food and beverage packaging. Depending on the nature of the glass, it can be recycled in the following manner crushed and remelted as cullet, that is, for broken and non-returnable or non-refillable glass containers and bottles cleaned, sterilised and refilled, that is,...

Energy balance

Aluminium Recycling Energy Balance

The energy required to recover and recycle aluminium, glass, paper, polyethylene PE , polyethylene terephthalate PET soft drink bottles , polypropylene PP , polystyrene PS and Polyvinylchloride PVC from domestic refuse, is considerably less than the energy required to produce these materials from raw materials, particularly when the refuse is separated at source, and collected regularly and frequently from this source. The energy requirements for producing these material, from raw materials and...

Australian References

Australian Environment Council, 1979. The Management of Packaging Waste. A discussion paper. Australian G vernment Printing Service, Canberra. Australian Environment Council, 1987. Effects of Government Policies on Recycling. AGPS, Canberra. Balmer C, 1988. Recycling in Tasmania - Current Status and Future Potential. Summary and recommendations of a report prepared for the Department of the Environment, the Utter Control Council and the Municipal Association of Tasmania, Hobart. Brickwood...

Plastic

High Density Polyethylene Transformation

Per capita, consumption of plastics in Australia is estimated to be around 55kg per person annually, contributing around 8 to the weight of domestic refuse. With an estimated 30000 tonnes of plastic being discarded in Western Australia annually 60 of consumption is for long term use items , only a small percentage of production is being recycled, PIA Inc, 1989 , in fact less than 2000 tonnes Australia wide. The energy that goes into producing plastics varies greatly, depending on the processes...

Summary

Recycling domestic refuse in the Perth metropolitan area is an economically feasible and energy efficient proposition. Around half a million tonnes of domestic refuse is generated annually throughout the Perth metropolitan area, the majority of the refuse being landfilied. Consequently, 12 million to 16 million of secondary resources are lost from the economy, a further 20 petajoules of energy being wasted, equivalent to the energy that would be used annually by 1.5 million Perth homes. A 95...

Aluminium

The production of aluminium from raw materials is an energy intensive process. Based on the aluminium industry operating within Australia, the extraction of bauxite and transport to an alumina refinery in the Kwinana Industrial area, requires approximately 6 gigajoules of energy per tonne of aluminium that is finally produced. The refining process and production of alumina requires between 40 and 60 gigajoules per tonne of aluminium, depending primarily upon the quality of the ore body, and the...

A Summary of recycling activities initiated by Western Australian metropolitan municipalities

Armadale 74 Chevin Road site recommended for closure to protect the environment Armadale 74 Chevin Road site recommended for closure to protect the environment Door-to-door service under consideration. Drop off depot at transfer station. Door-to-door service under consideration. Ranford Road site undesirable due to groundwater pollution Under consideration. Tenders called for in 1990. Henderson landfill developed as a regional site Tenders for household collection service called during May...

Figures

1 Energy required to produce one tonne of aluminium, glass, bleached paper, unbleached paper, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and Polyvinylchloride, from raw materials and recycled materials 2 Energy required to produce one tonne of aluminium from raw materials and from recycled aluminium 3 Energy required to produce one tonne of glass from raw materials, recycled glass and the energy required to reuse one tonne of glass containers 4 Energy required to produce one tonne of...