Ultimate Guide to Power Efficiency
Perhaps the best precedent for requiring broader federal participation in electronics recycling is the Energy Star program, co-sponsored by EPA and the Department of Energy. According to EPA, in 2004 alone, Energy Star products helped save approximately 10 billion in energy costs and reduced greenhouse gas emissions by an amount equivalent to that produced by 20 million automobiles. Also, in 2005, public awareness of Energy Star reached over 60 percent. Because of Energy Star's high profile, EPA officials told us that although manufacturers do not have to design their products to meet Energy Star criteria, many manufacturers view Energy Star as a de facto requirement for design of their products suggesting that if their products do not have the Energy Star label then they are at a competitive disadvantage in the marketplace. According to an EPA official who has worked on the Energy Star program since its inception, part of Energy Star's success can be attributed to two executive...
In its nuclear energy policy the Japanese government is promoting systematic utilization of MOX fuel in LWRs, we have joined in the development of MOX fuel technology to allow future full scale utilization. Initially the plutonium had to feed the fast neutron reactors, but for economical reasons the place of these ones among die other power plants is postponed. The FBR delay (several decades) increases the mean term interest for the recycling in water reactors with regard to the economical impact and to the impact on the balance of nuclear matters. In fact, the quality of the produced plutonium is deteriorated due to the decay of the 241 isotope into 241 americium (20 in 5 years), thus a lost of fissile matter together with a poisoning of the fuel and an increase of its gamma activity. Within the framework of a 100 MOX PWR feasibility study, the voiding is a dimensioning accident it is necessary to determine the limit content in plutonium beyond which the core reactivity increases...
However, this is common government logic it is energy saving simply because government does not count the time and energy used by nine million people cleaning and sorting their trash. Government authorities and researchers have reached the conclusion that the cost of (a) the water and electricity used for cleaning household trash, (b) transportation from trash collection centers, and (c) the final recycling process is actually less than would be necessary to produce these materials from scratch. Of course, they don't count the literally millions of times people drive to the recycling centers to empty their trash bins neither do they count, for instance, energy and costs for the extra housing space required for a dozen extra trash bins in every home.
The Melox plant can be seen as an outstanding achievement, taking full benefit from previous experience, while introducing several innovative features in terms of radiation protection as well as environmental concerns. It is a major input in the national energy policy, as an important link of the plutonium recycling strategy.
Polymers are used in manufacturing for financial and technical reasons. In transport they can provide reductions in the first cost.7 Such cost reductions are not necessarily permanent, since technological improvements and shifts in the raw materials prices continually give one material a cost advantage relative to another. Such a case is the substitution of plated ABS for zinc-based die castings in trim. However, plastics also offer other advantages their use can achieve significant weight savings relative to metals and, whether for this reason or for others, they may offer substantial lifetime energy savings. For example, it has been calculated that although manufacture of a given automotive fuel tank in HDPE typically consumes 7 more energy (taking into account both the energy content of the material and the energy required for fabrication) than does a corresponding tank in steel, (0.738 GJ tank in plastic compared with 0.685 GJ in steel) 68 of the total energy consumed in the...
In contrast, the potential success of the FEC Federal Electronics Challenge and EPEAT Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool programs is presently limited because, unlike the Energy Star program, federal agencies' participation is not required. The potential benefits from broader federal participation were illustrated by BPA's experience, which, as noted earlier, demonstrated significant cost and energy savings and greater environmental protection. They were also underscored by the results of our survey almost 90 percent of respondents said that federal government procurement criteria along the lines of FEC and EPEAT should be required, and over 95 percent said that such procurement criteria would encourage environmentally preferable product design, and greater recycling and reuse.
There are numerous reasons why . . . citizens and businesses should be encouraged to recycle. They include a broad range of environmental stewardship concerns, as well as practical interest in local economic opportunities and development, including cost savings, extended landfill lifespans, resource conservation, energy conservation, economic development, pollution prevention, greenhouse gas emissions reductions, and fostering a sense of community involvement and responsibility.
Nevertheless, in spite of their very important efforts towards a better environment, efficient production to reduce energy consumption, significant reduction in pollution by using efficient modern affluent treatments, participation in collecting and recycling of post-consumer and industrial waste, the chemical, plastics, automotive, and other industries are often the scapegoats for this situation.
We say that a person who cares about the environment is 'green'. Imagine a 'green' family in twenty years' time. Gary and Gail Green and their children Gavin and Grace live in an 'energy-saving' house. Most of their house is under the ground. This makes it easy to conserve heat and keep the house warm in winter and cool in summer.
The cost and energy usage in the collection and disposal of plastics which appear as litter is unacceptable. Much of this arises from agriculture in the form of mulching film, binder twine and increasingly irrigation tubing, silage bags, and fertiliser packaging. Non-degradable plastics in agricultural land have an adverse affect on the fertility ofthe soil and on the economics ofautomated agricul-ture.4 Controlled photo-biodegradability is the only viable solution to this kind of waste which is almost always heavily contaminated and thus unsuitable for recycling even if it could be economically collected and segregated. By the same token, the only way to reduce plastics packaging litter in the sea and on the seashore5 is to ensure that it photodegrades and or biodegrades rapidly. Some polymers, notably those containing chlorine, present problems in photo-biodegradation due to the potentially dangerous nature of the ultimate low molecular weight degradation products, almost certainly...
Recycling domestic refuse in the Perth metropolitan area is an economically feasible and energy efficient proposition. A 95 energy saving is derived from recycling aluminium cans, a 50 energy saving from remelting waste or broken glass, with an 85 energy saving from reusing glass containers and bottles, than producing comparative products from raw materials. There is a 45 energy saving by recycling polyethylene and polypropylene, 40 saving by recycling polyvinylchloride and polystyrene, and 40 energy saving from recycling polyethylene terephthalate, with a further 68 energy saving by recycling paper pulp.
Energy saving by recycling plastic I Energy saving 0 Raw materials Q Recycled ma tenais Energy saving TOTAL Energy saving TOTAL Energy saving Raw materials D Recycled materials Energy saving Raw materials D Recycled materials Energy saving Raw materials 0 Recycled materials Energy saving Raw materials 0 Recycled materials S Energy saving TOTAL S Energy saving TOTAL Energy saving TOTAL Energy saving TOTAL An energy saving in the range of 40 to 60 is achieved in the recycling of plastic, depending primarily on the type of plastic being recycled.
An issue affecting the potential for retreading is the introduction of energy-efficient tyres (often labelled as eco-tyres, or smart tyres). These can save up to 6 of a vehicle's fuel. The retreadability of these tyres, however, is said to be limited. It is possible that the reduction in externalities associated with increased fuel efficiency is not as great as the increased externalities associated with reduced recoverability. However, there is a market for fuel efficiency. Conversely, if the costs of disposal are not transmitted back to the consumer there is not a market for recoverability. As such, design will not be socially optimal.
Additional energy savings associated with recycling accrue in the manufacturing process itself, since the materials have already undergone processing. And of course, by saving energy, recycling helps the U.S. reduce its reliance on oil. The EPA reported that in 2000, recycling resulted in an annual energy savings equal to the amount of energy used in 6 million homes over 660 trillion BTU's British thermal units and expected that to rise to 900 trillion BTUs in 2005.
The first option is for each local council to operate the collection as part of the normal municipal collection. Some local councils have attempted to operate recycling schemes of this nature, but have limited the collection to glass beverage bottles, paper, and aluminium cans. Where this type of partial recycling scheme has been introduced, the participation rate does not usually exceed 40 , with the tonnage of material collected being far less than what could be reasonably expected. Consequently, most councils have found it to be too expensive to continue this type of scheme. This emphasises the need for a recycling scheme to offer the capacity to collect all materials from domestic refuse that are suitable for recycling, not only to make it easy for the participants to cooperate, but to maximise the energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of the entire scheme.
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