Analysis of organic matternutrient flows

The results of the waste surveys indicated that in each city approximately 80,000 tonnes of organic waste are produced each year in the form of solid household waste with a nitrogen (N) content of 26 tonnes. Given the illicit nature of procuring and applying this waste, it was not possible to estimate the amount that is currently applied on a yearly basis in urban and peri-urban farms. Estimating how much of this could be applied in both types of farming systems involved the use of a number of...

Development of tailormade methods for analysis of organic waste materials

The analysis of the various samples of waste products in the first two years of the project indicated that heavy metals were the most important contaminants to monitor. (Although even for heavy metals, most of the results obtained suggested that alarming levels of contamination were rare.) The selection of target heavy metals was narrowed down to two, lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), based on three criteria results of chemical analysis of samples from Bamako and Ouagadougou toxicity for consumers and...

Development Scenarios

In each city, scenarios of the development of the urban waste-agriculture supply chain were formulated. In each case, the current situation provided the starting point. In Bamako, this was complimented with two alternative scenarios the core plan being formulated by municipal authorities together with the World Bank (Sch ma Directeur) and a decentralised approach, formulated by the APUGEDU team. In Ouagadougou, the two alternative scenarios include also a core plan (SDGD Sch ma directeur de...

Evaluation of constraints and potentials in periurban agriculture and potential use of urban organic

The constraints and potentials in (peri)-urban agriculture and the potential use of urban organic waste were evaluated first by means of workshops and informal discussions with a range of stakeholders. For (peri)-urban farmers in Ouagadougou, this was combined with the rapid appraisal conducted above undertaken by INERA (Activity 3.3). For stakeholders in waste management, a focus group was organised by CREPA, which brought together representatives of 19 private sector enterprises and...

Ill

Considerable differences were observed in the economic performance between the two cities. Gross margins per hectare were generally 2-3 times higher in Bamako than in Ouagadougou (see Table XX). In general, farmers in Bamako have somewhat higher yields than those in Ouagadougou but used far Table 3 Major Horticultural Crops Cultivated Table 3 Major Horticultural Crops Cultivated Note Bamako comprises zone B only for comparison of intensive vegetable producers fewer inputs. Ouagadougou farmers...

Inventory and analysis of policies

The inventory and analysis of policies was coordinated by IIED which provided substantial guidance on the design of these studies, as well as feedback on the results. In Bamako, two separate reviews were undertaken one by IER of the evolution of policies concerning (peri)-urban agriculture and one by CEK on the waste management sector. These reviews concentrated on the analysis of official texts and interviews with key informants. In Ouagadougou, the two reviews were combined, in order to place...

Organisational Links Stakeholder Workshop

Workshops were organised in each city to discuss the organisational and policy issues concerning improved linkages between the (peri)-urban agricultural and waste management sectors. A wide variety of stakeholders participated in each workshop, including waste collectors, waste processors, government officials from municipality and provincial level, (peri)-urban farmers and bilateral donor organisations. The workshops were also a chance to disseminate results of the project among such a wide...

Participatory appraisals of farming systems

The next step in the characterisation of (peri)-urban agriculture was rapid appraisals in both cities to identify the key characteristics of the production systems as well as the opportunities and constraints perceived by farmers. These were undertaken in each of the eight sites in Bamako and the four sites in Ouagadougou. A checklist of issues and key questions was proposed by LEI to the two study teams in both cities. This was then revised with the teams and a number of participatory tools...

Pilot projects on use of waste products in periurban agriculture

Participatory experiments were undertaken by INERA with both staple crop and horticultural farmers in both cities on the application of compost in trial plots. In Ouagadougou, the purpose was to assess the value of using the compost already being produced but which has not gained a market. During the 2000 rainy season, a group of 14 staple crop farmers in Kamboinse, Ouagadougou used compost supplied by CREPA in fields of millet, cowpea and sorghum. Each farmer applied a dose of 5 tonnes per...

Quantitative characterisation of periurban agriculture

The quantitative farm management surveys were intended to generate detailed agronomic, economic and biophysical data on farm practices. The survey methodology was based on one developed by LEI, Alterra and others for the so-called NUTMON approach. In Bamako, out of an intial total of 41 farmers, 32 were successfully surveyed while in Ouagadougou, the final total was 39 out of an initial group of 49. The surveying began in November 1999 and January 2000 in, respectively, Ouagadougou and Bamako...

Selection of periurban agricultural sites

The selection of the agricultural sites was coordinated by Alterra (comprising the former Winand Staring Centre SC) which proposed a procedure including a number of criteria to use for characterising the sites. First, areas of urban and peri-urban agricultural production in the two cities were identified on the basis of existing knowledge and quick field checks. The following were the major characteristics used for characterising the identified areas urban versus peri-urban location general...

Surveys of existing municipal waste management systems

In both cities, detailed information on the production and composition of waste was compiled. In Ouagadougou, CREPA assembled and synthesised the existing information. WASTE assisted CEK in the design and execution of a survey of various waste producers, collectors and processors in Commune IV of Bamako, which was chosen as reasonably representative of the whole city. These surveys were complemented with some surveys of key producers (e.g. markets and hotels) or processors in other Communes. In...

The Apugedu Research Project

This applied research project examined the technical and organisational potential for improving the use of urban organic waste in urban and peri-urban agriculture in Bamako, Mali and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. The project's timeframe was March 1999 to May 2002. The project had the following four objectives Strengthening the development of a sustainable (peri)-urban agricultural sector in Bamako and Ouagadougou Strengthening the development of a viable system of processing, distribution and...

Pilot projects on waste transformation

Different approaches were adopted in the pilot projects on waste transformation because of the different interests and circumstances of farmers and waste processors involved in the study sites in Bamako and Ouagadougou. In Ouagadougou, CREPA's previous experience has indicated that the compost produced by the women's associations is judged by farmers to be relatively expensive. CREPA therefore experimented with the existing technique of composting in windrows with the objective of lowering the...

Final Report Abstract

The Potentials of development of urban and peri-urban agriculture in relation to urban waste management in West Africa Project (APUGEDU) was undertaken by a consortium of four organisations based in Bamako, Mali and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso and four European research organisations. This multidisciplinary, systems-oriented project lasted from March 1999 through May 2002 and was co-ordinated by the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), of the Wageningen University and Research Centre...

Chemical and microbiological analysis of quality of different types of organic wastes

Various organic waste products were analysed by IER, INERA, RIKILT and CEBAS for their agronomic value, as well as for toxic properties. Eight samples of waste material (including compost, soil amender and raw organic solid waste material from both cities were sent to the Netherlands and to Spain for analysis. This included both chemical analysis for heavy metal content and also microbiological analysis for the presence of bacterial pathogens. Two indicators for microbial contamination (germ...

Literature Reviews

The reviews of experience and existing documentation in Bamako and Ouagadougou were used as internal project documents. They highlighted the lack of available information on the (peri)-urban agriculture sector in the two cities, and the relative lack of attention that the sector has received by official organisations. The international review underlined the absence of systematic studies on the potential for recycling urban waste into (peri)-urban agriculture, and produced useful information on...

Economic analysis

The economic analysis of the development scenarios envisaged in Ouagadougou indicates that the proposed core plan (SDGD) carries a number of risks in terms of its economic viability. Under the SDGD, households are expected to pay a fee for rubbish collection that is optimistic in comparison to current amounts (at least FCFA 1000 per month compared to current FCFA 500 per month). Furthermore, it is not clear that the municipal government will have the means or the incentives to enforce the...

Publications and Papers

Project reports available on website 1. Recycling Urban Waste in Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture A Literature Review LEI amp WASTE 2. Caract risation de l Agriculture Urbaine et P ri-urbaine de la ville de Ouagadougou R sultats des Diagnostics Rapides dans les sites agricoles urbains etp ri-urbains du projet APUGEDU by Lompo F., Bonzi M., Youl S., INERA 3. Caract risation de l agriculture urbaine etp riurbaine a Bamako IER CEK 4. Syst me de gestion des d chets urbains et d veloppement de l...